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Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 299–303 | Cite as

Caffeine toxicity in forensic practice: possible effects and under-appreciated sources

  • Ian F. Musgrave
  • Rachael L. Farrington
  • Claire Hoban
  • Roger W. Byard
Review

Abstract

Caffeine is considered a very safe stimulant and is widely consumed in a variety of forms, from pure caffeine to beverages and foods. Typically, death is only seen when gram quantities of caffeine are consumed, usually in suicide attempts. Even in this scenario, death is rare. However, there are special populations that need to be considered in forensic presentations, who may be at greater risk. These include poor metabolizers, people with liver disease, and people with cardiac conditions, who can die as a result of caffeine intake at levels well below what is ordinarily considered toxic. Also, caffeine intake may be hidden. For example, herbal medicines with substantial caffeine content may not disclose these concentrations on their product label. The role of caffeine in medicolegal deaths is yet to be defined, however, herbal medicines and herbal weight loss supplements may represent an underappreciated source of caffeine in this context.

Keywords

Caffeine Toxicity Forensic Death Caffeine-intoxication Herbal medicine Pharmacokinetics Undeclared sources Review 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian F. Musgrave
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rachael L. Farrington
    • 1
  • Claire Hoban
    • 1
  • Roger W. Byard
    • 2
  1. 1.Discipline of PharmacologyThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of MedicineThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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