Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 210–216

Writing impressions revealed by scanners

Original Paper


Heavily impressed writing impressions in paper and impressions in glossy brochures are often difficult or impossible to develop using the electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA, manufactured by Foster and Freeman). Oblique and specular reflectance lighting can be used but they are time-consuming techniques and not always very successful. This paper briefly describes a scanning and image-processing method for producing excellent images of such writing impressions.


Forensic document examination Writing impressions Scanner Image processing 


  1. 1.
    Ellen DM, Foster DJ, Marantz DJ. Use of electrostatic imaging in the detection of indented impressions. Forensic Sci Int 1980;15:53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forensic Document Services Pty LtdFyshwickAustralia

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