Diagnosis and Treatment of Metastases to the Thyroid Gland: a Meta-Analysis
- 194 Downloads
The thyroid is a rare site of clinically detectable tumor metastases; even though the gland is a highly vascularized structure, the frequency of metastases in the routine practice is less than 0.2% of all thyroid malignancies. The purpose of our meta-analysis is to evaluate the frequency of metastatic diffusion from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland and to suggest the best possible treatment through an evidence-based study. Relevant studies were identified by searching the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. We selected all English-written articles published from 1995 to 2015. Studies were considered eligible if they reported the timing of metastatic spread and the site of the primary tumor in respect to the diaphragmatic region. Case reports were not included. Twenty-eight studies accounted for 514 patients. The rate of metachronous metastases was 69%. Fifty-three percent of primaries originated from the infradiaphragmatic region. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was done in 154 patients and 195 patients were treated mostly with surgery. A prevalence of primary tumors from the infradiaphragmatic region and of metachronous metastases was observed. Knowledge of the clinical history and the ancillary techniques can improve the sensitivity and accuracy of FNAB. Thyroidectomy may be considered a more effective treatment than radio-chemotherapy.
KeywordsMeta-analysis Thyroid neoplasm Metastasis Diagnosis Surgery
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Papi G, Fadda G, Corsello SM et al (2007) Metastases to the thyroid gland: prevalence, clinicopathological aspects and prognosis: a 10 year experience. Cinical Endocrinol (Oxf) 66: 565–571.Google Scholar
- 3.Virchow RLK (1859) Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische undpathologische Gewebelehre. Berlin,: A. HirschwaldGoogle Scholar
- 4.Berge T, Lundberg S. Cancer in Malmo 1958–1969. An autopsy study. (1977) Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand Suppl 1:235.Google Scholar
- 8.Silverberg SG, Vidone RA (1966) Metastatic tumors in the thyroid. Pacific Med Surg 74: 175–178.Google Scholar
- 34.Calzolari F, Sartori PV, Talarico C, Parmeggiani D, Beretta E, Pezzullo L, Bovo G, Sperlongano P, Monacelli M, Lucchini R, Misso C, Gurrado A, D’ Ajello M, Uggeri F, Puxeddu E, Nasi P, Testini M, Rosato L, Barbarisio A, Avenia N (2008) Surgical treatment of intrathyroid metastases: preliminary results of a multicentric study. Anticancer Research 28: 2885–2888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 48.Wey SL, Chang KM (2015) Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid neoplasms. Case Rep Pathol. 2015:153932.Google Scholar