, Volume 66, Issue 3, pp 503–508 | Cite as

Body muscle-to-fat ratio gender-specific cut-off values for impaired insulin sensitivity in patients with treatment-naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus

  • Noboru Kurinami
  • Seigo Sugiyama
  • Akira Yoshida
  • Kunio Hieshima
  • Fumio Miyamoto
  • Keizo Kajiwara
  • Katsunori Jinnouch
  • Tomio Jinnouchi
  • Hideaki JinnouchiEmail author
Original Article



We previously reported that the body muscle-to-fat ratio (BMFR), measured using bioelectrical impedance, significantly correlated with whole-body insulin sensitivity. We examined BMFR gender-specific cut-off values for impaired insulin sensitivity in treatment-naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.


Subjects included 101 untreated T2DM patients (male, 66; female, 35). We performed a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp examination to measure the steady-state glucose infusion rate (M value) as an indicator of whole-body insulin resistance. We defined the M value divided by the steady-state serum insulin value as the M/I value. We defined the existence of insulin resistance using an M/I ratio <9.0. The optimal cut-off value for BMFR was calculated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis.


The cut-off value of the BMFR for insulin resistance was 2.75 (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.83, sensitivity 75%, and specificity 76%, P < 0.001) for males and 1.65 (AUC = 0.87, sensitivity 84%, and specificity 81%, P < 0.001) for females. Simple linear regression analysis showed that BMFR was significantly correlated with the M/I value in both genders (males, B = 0.77, P< 0.01; females, B = 0.83, P< 0.01).


BMFR cut-off values for impaired insulin sensitivity in treatment-naïve T2DM patients were 2.75 for males and 1.65 for females.


Diabetes mellitus Insulin resistance Obesity Body muscle-to-fat ratio Gender difference 



We thank Jodi Smith and Charles Allan from Edanz Group ( for editing a draft of this paper.

Authors’ contributions

NK, SS, and HJ contributed to the analysis design, acquisition and interpretation of data, and reviewed/edited the paper. AY, KH, FM, KK, KJ, and TJ contributed to the interpretation of data and reviewed/edited the paper. All authors read and approved the final paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

HJ has received honoraria from Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Astellas Pharma, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi-Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Takeda, and Novartis Pharmaceuticals. SS has received honoraria from MSD, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Ono Pharmaceutical, Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd, and Novo Nordisk. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. The study received institutional ethical review and all participants provided informed consent. As such, this study conforms to the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noboru Kurinami
    • 1
  • Seigo Sugiyama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Akira Yoshida
    • 1
  • Kunio Hieshima
    • 1
  • Fumio Miyamoto
    • 1
  • Keizo Kajiwara
    • 1
  • Katsunori Jinnouch
    • 1
  • Tomio Jinnouchi
    • 1
  • Hideaki Jinnouchi
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Diabetes Care Center, Jinnouchi HospitalKumamotoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Diabetes Care Center, Jinnouchi HospitalKumamotoJapan
  3. 3.Division of Preventive Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular MedicineKumamoto University HospitalKumamotoJapan

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