, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 285–292 | Cite as

Medullary thyroid carcinoma: Application of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) Classification

  • Gabin Yun
  • Yeo Koon KimEmail author
  • Sang Il Choi
  • Ji-hoon Kim
Original Article



To evaluate the applicability of ultrasound (US)-based Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for evaluating medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

Materials and methods

US images and medical records of patients with cytopathology-confirmed MTC between June 2003 and November 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Four independent reviewers (two experienced and two inexperienced radiologists) evaluated 57 pre-operative US images of patients with MTC for shape, composition, echogenicity, margin, calcification of the MTC nodules, and categorized the nodules using TI-RADS classification. Weighted Kappa statistics was used to determine the inter-observer agreement of TI-RADS. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess US findings associated with lymph node metastasis.


Ninety-five percent of nodules were classified as either high suspicion (68%) or intermediate suspicion (26%). The overall inter-rater agreement was good (Kappa 0.84, agreement 91.52%), and inexperienced reviewers also showed good agreements with the most experienced reviewer (weighted Kappa 0.73 and 0.81). According to the univariate analysis, TI-RADS category 5, shape, microcalcification, and extrathyroid extension were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis in MTC patients (p = 0.003, 0.008, 0.001, and 0.021, respectively). As per the multivariate analysis, the presence of microcalcification and the irregular shape of the nodule were significantly associated with metastatic lymph nodes in MTC patients (odds ratio, 26.6; 95% CI, 2.7–263.7, p = 0.005, odds ratio, 14.7; 95% CI, 1.3–170, p = 0.031, respectively).


TI-RADS is applicable for the evaluation of MTC nodules with good inter-observer agreement.


Medullary thyroid carcinoma TI-RADS Lymph node metastasis Microcalcification 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and informed consent was waived.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologySeoul National University Bundang HospitalSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of RadiologySeoul National University HospitalSeoulKorea

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