High dose of radioactive iodine per se has no effect on glucose metabolism in thyroidectomized rats
- 136 Downloads
Thyroid concentrates radioactive iodine by sodium-iodide symporter; this is used for treating hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Pancreas expresses NIS and radioactive iodine uptake may damage pancreatic beta-cells and predispose patients to type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether radioactive iodine is associated with glucose metabolism in thyroidectomized rats.
Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 10/each); control, thyroidectomized, thyroidectomized-treated with 131-I (TX+I), and thyroidectomized-treated with 131-I and l-thyroxine (TX+I+T4). At the end of study, serum fasting glucose, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free tetraiodothyronine were measured, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance was calculated. In in vitro experiments, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets and sodium-iodide symporter mRNA expression in thyroid and islets were determined.
Compared to control group, free tetraiodothyronine was lower by 41 and 77% and thyroid-stimulating hormone was higher by 36 and 126% in thyroidectomized and TX+I groups, respectively. Compared to controls, rats in TX+I group had glucose intolerance as assessed using the area under curve of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (12,376 ± 542 vs. 20,769 ± 1070, P < 0.001) and l-thyroxine replacement therapy restored the value (14,286 ± 328.24) to near normal. Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were comparable in all groups, however fasting glucose was higher in TX+I group. In in vitro experiments, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets did not differ between groups.
Radioactive iodine therapy per se had no effect on glucose metabolism, just intensified thyroid hormone deficiency and the alterations on glucose metabolism in thyroidectomized rats. l-thyroxine therapy restored the glucose intolerance observed in radioactive iodine-treated thyroidectomized rats.
KeywordsRadioactive iodine Sodium-iodide symporter Glucose metabolism Thyroidectomy Rat
The authors wish to thank Ms. Niloofar. Shiva for critical editing for English grammar and syntax of the manuscript. The proposal of this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Research Institute for Endocrine Science (RIES), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science. This study was supported by grant number No. 768 from the RIES.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
- 6.P.S. Sundaram, S. Padma, S. Sudha, K. Sasikala, Transient cytotoxicity of 131I beta radiation in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine. Indian J. Med. Res. 133, 401–406 (2011)Google Scholar
- 7.S.A. Rivkees, C. Dinauer. The use of 131 Iodine in the treatment of Graves’ disease in children. in Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine: Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects. ed. by V.R. Preedy, G.N. Burrow, R. Watson (Academic, Boston, MA, 2009), pp. 943–992Google Scholar
- 8.R. Samadi, B. Shafiei, F. Azizi, A. Ghasemi, Radioactive iodine therapy and glucose tolerance. Cell J. 19, 184–193 (2017)Google Scholar
- 12.C. Spitzweg, W. Joba, W. Eisenmenger, A.E. Heufelder, Analysis of human sodium iodide symporter gene expression in extrathyroidal tissues and cloning of its complementary deoxyribonucleic acids from salivary gland, mammary gland, and gastric mucosa. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83, 1746–1751 (1998)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.I.L. Wapnir, M. van de Rijn, K. Nowels, P.S. Amenta, K. Walton, K. Montgomery et al., Immunohistochemical profile of the sodium/iodide symporter in thyroid, breast, and other carcinomas using high density tissue microarrays and conventional sections. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88, 1880–1888 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.N. Eijun, K. Masafumi, Glucose tolerance evaluation in graves patients treated with methimazole and radioiodine. Int. J. Endocrinol. Metab 2011, 377–378 (2011)Google Scholar
- 18.S.A. Durmaz, A. Carlioglu, E. Simsek, M. Demirci, H. Sevimli, Does radioactive iodine ablation treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism effect on glucose metabolism? Endocrine 35, 1025 (2014)Google Scholar
- 19.J. Kiani, V. Yusefi, M. Tohidi, Y. Mehrabi, F. Azizi, Evaluation of glucose tolerance in methimazole and radioiodine treated Graves’ patients. Int. J. Endocrinol. Metab. 8, 132–137 (2010)Google Scholar
- 24.J.C. Francisco, R.C. Cunha, M.A. Cardoso, R.B. Simeoni, L.C. Guarita-Souza, The effects of total thyroidectomy on cardiac function in old rats using echocardiographic measures. J. Clin. Exp. Cardiol. 11, 2–5 (2013)Google Scholar
- 28.M. Tohidi, A. Ghasemi, F. Hadaegh, A. Derakhshan, A. Chary, F. Azizi, Age- and sex-specific reference values for fasting serum insulin levels and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices in healthy Iranian adults: tehran lipid and glucose study. Clin. Biochem. 47, 432–438 (2014)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 53.A. Herwig, G. Campbell, C.-D. Mayer, A. Boelen, R.A. Anderson, A.W. Ross et al., A thyroid hormone challenge in hypothyroid rats identifies T3 regulated genes in the hypothalamus and in models with altered energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Thyroid 24, 1575–1593 (2014)CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 56.D. Salvatore, T.F. Davies, M. Schlumberger, I.D. Hay, P.R. Larsen. Thyroid physiology and diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid disorders. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. ed. by S. Melmed, K.S. Polonsky, P.R. Larsen, H.M. Kronenberg (Elsevier Health Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, 2011) pp. 327–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 58.S. Reichlin, J.B. Martin, R.L. Boshans, D.S. Schalch, J.G. Pierce, J. Bollinger, Measurement of TSH in plasma and pituitary of the rat by a radioimmunoassay utilizing bovine TSH: effect of thyroidectomy or thyroxine administration on plasma TSH levels. Endocrinology 87, 1022–1031 (1970)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 59.J.W. Fisher, E.D. McLanahan. Computational model for iodide economy and the HPT axis in the adult rat. Quantitative Modeling in Toxicology. ed. by M.E.A. Kannan Krishnan (Wiley, Chichester, 2010) p. 262Google Scholar