, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 352–362 | Cite as

Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring

  • Murat Yüksel
  • Mustafa NazıroğluEmail author
  • Mehmet Okan Özkaya
Original Article


We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats.

Graphical Abstract

TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. It is likely that TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ entry in the uterus of pregnant rats involves accumulation of oxidative stress and opening of mitochondrial membrane pores that consequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, substantial swelling of the mitochondria with rupture of the outer membrane and release of oxidants such as superoxide (O2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The superoxide radical is converted to H2O2 by superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is an important antioxidant enzyme for removing lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide and it catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 to water.


Antioxidants Uterine Hormone Growing rat Electromagnetic radiation 



Extremely low electrical field


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


Electromagnetic radiation


Follicle-stimulating hormone


Reduced glutathione


Glutathione peroxidase


Luteinizing hormone


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


Reactive oxygen species


Total antioxidant status


Total oxidant status


Wireless local area network



The Scientific Research Unit (BAP) of the Suleyman Demirel University (Project Number: 3536-TU2-13) supported this study. The authors are grateful to Muhammet Şahin (Department of Biophysics) for helping with the antioxidant and oxidant analyses. In addition, the authors wish to thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Selçuk Çömlekçi (Electronics and Communication Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey), for calculation of the specific absorption rates.

Author contribution

Mustafa Nazıroğlu formulated the hypothesis for the present study and wrote the report. Murat Yüksel was involved in facilitating the EMR exposure procedures as well as in managing the experimental rats. Mehmet Okan Özkaya made critical revisions to the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murat Yüksel
    • 1
  • Mustafa Nazıroğlu
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mehmet Okan Özkaya
    • 1
  1. 1.The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.The Department of Biophysics, Faculty of MedicineSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey

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