Sclerostin and DKK-1: two important regulators of bone metabolism in HIV-infected youths
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Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone metabolism are common findings in HIV-infected patients. Increased bone formation has been described both in HIV-infected adults and children. Wnt ligands promote bone formation by stimulating osteoblast differentiation and their survival. Sclerostin and dickkopf factor 1 (DKK-1), Wnt antagonists, are important negative regulators of bone formation. We studied 86 HIV-infected patients whose ages ranged from 5.7 to 27.9 years. Patients were all on antiretroviral therapy, but seven who were naïve to treatment. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), sclerostin, and DKK-1 were measured in serum by enzyme immunoassay. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and in the whole skeleton. Biochemical indexes were also measured in 143 healthy controls (age range 4.5–27.4 years). HIV-infected patients had lower than normal BMD (spine P < 0.005, and whole skeleton P < 0.03). BAP measurements were significantly higher in HIV-infected patients than controls (P ≤ 0.05). Sclerostin and DKK-1 concentrations were markedly lower than in controls (P ≤ 0.0006, and P ≤ 0.03, respectively). The serum concentration of both analytes of patients naïve to antiretroviral treatment was not different from that of treated patients. No correlations were found between sclerostin, DKK-1, and bone mineral measurements. Our data confirm the alteration of bone metabolism pathways in HIV-infected individuals. The lower concentration of Wnt antagonists is consistent with the increased bone formation markers.
KeywordsSclerostin DKK-1 HIV infection Bone mineral density
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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