, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 454–460 | Cite as

Fruit intake decreases risk of incident type 2 diabetes: an updated meta-analysis

  • Shuangshuang Li
  • Song Miao
  • Yubei Huang
  • Zhaolu Liu
  • Huan Tian
  • Xiuxiu Yin
  • Weihong Tang
  • Lyn M. Steffen
  • Bo Xi


Association between fruit intake and risk of type 2 diabetes is inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of all prospective cohort studies to clarify the association between fruit intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Relevant studies were identified by searches of the PubMed and Embase databases up to November 2013. The summary relative risks of association were obtained using a fixed- or random-effects model. A total of nine prospective studies (403,259 participants, including 27,940 with incident type 2 diabetes) from seven publications were included in the meta-analysis of fruit intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. We found that individuals in the highest category of fruit intake had a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk 0.92, 95 % confidence interval 0.86–0.97, p = 0.003) compared to those in the lowest category, with moderate evidence of between-study heterogeneity (I 2 = 37.6 %, p = 0.12). There was an evident non-linear association of fruit intake with type 2 diabetes (P for nonlinearity <0.001). A non-linear threshold of 200 g/day of fruit intake was identified and the risk of type 2 diabetes reduced by about 13 % at this cut-off. Our findings are consistent with diet recommendations to consume about 200 g/day of fruits to prevent type 2 diabetes.


Fruit Type 2 diabetes Meta-analysis 



Confidence interval


Hazard ratio


Relative risk


Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

12020_2014_351_MOESM1_ESM.doc (198 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 198 kb)
12020_2014_351_MOESM2_ESM.doc (70 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 70 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuangshuang Li
    • 1
  • Song Miao
    • 2
  • Yubei Huang
    • 3
  • Zhaolu Liu
    • 4
  • Huan Tian
    • 4
  • Xiuxiu Yin
    • 4
  • Weihong Tang
    • 5
  • Lyn M. Steffen
    • 5
  • Bo Xi
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public HealthShandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Shandong Medical CollegeJinanChina
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsTianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and HospitalTianjinChina
  4. 4.Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public HealthShandong UniversityJinanChina
  5. 5.Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public HealthUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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