Advertisement

Endocrine

, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 231–240 | Cite as

Association between leisure time physical activity and metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

  • Dan He
  • Bo Xi
  • Jian Xue
  • Pengcheng Huai
  • Min Zhang
  • Jun Li
Meta-Analysis

Abstract

A great number of prospective studies have investigated the relationship between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk. However, the results have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between LTPA and MetS risk. Literature databases were searched including PubMed and Embase up to June 2013. A total of 17 studies, including 64,353 participants and 11,271 incident cases, were included in the meta-analysis. A high level of LTPA was statistically associated with decreased risk of MetS [high vs. low: relative risk (RR) = 0.80, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.75–0.85], whereas a moderate level of LTPA was weakly associated with decreased risk of MetS (moderate vs. low: RR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91–1.00). Subgroup analyses indicated that the association between a moderate level of LTPA and decreased risk of MetS was only significant in men (moderate vs. low: RR = 0.88, 95 % CI 0.81–0.97) and in studies with more than a 10-year follow-up period (moderate vs. low: RR = 0.90, 95 % CI 0.84–0.97). A high level of LTPA was statistically associated with decreased risk of MetS in each subgroup. A higher level of LTPA is associated with a lower risk of MetS. These findings could have public health implications with regard to prevention of MetS through lifestyle interventions.

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome Leisure time physical activity Prospective study Meta-analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20120131120004). The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    E.A. Gale, The myth of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 48, 1679–1683 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.W. Wilson, R.B. D’Agostino, H. Parise, L. Sullivan, J.B. Meigs, Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 112, 3066–3072 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.H. Zhang, N.F. Li, Z.T. Yan, L. de Zhang, H.M. Wang, Y.Y. Guo, Z. Ling, Association of genetic variations of PRDM16 with metabolic syndrome in a general Xinjiang Uygur population. Endocrine 41, 539–541 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Yang, C.H. Chu, P.C. Hsieh, C.H. Hsu, Y.C. Chou, S.H. Yang, C.H. Bai, S.L. You, L.C. Hwang, T.C. Chung, C.A. Sun, C-reactive protein concentration as a significant correlate for metabolic syndrome: a Chinese population-based study. Endocrine 43, 351–359 (2013)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Stefanov, M. Blüher, A. Vekova, I. Bonova, S. Tzvetkov, D. Kurktschiev, T. Temelkova-Kurktschiev, Circulating chemerin decreases in response to a combined strength and endurance training. Endocrine (2013). doi: 10.1007/s12020-013-0003-2 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.H. Tsai, T.C. Li, C.C. Lin, H.S. Tsay, Factor analysis of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Taiwanese. Endocrine 40, 256–264 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Carroll, M. Dudfield, What is the relationship between exercise and metabolic abnormalities? A review of the metabolic syndrome. Sports Med. 34, 371–418 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B.C. Guinhouya, H. Samouda, D. Zitouni, C. Vilhelm, H. Hubert, Evidence of the influence of physical activity on the metabolic syndrome and/or on insulin resistance in pediatric populations: a systematic review. Int. J. Pediatr. Obes. 6, 361–388 (2011)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.R. Churilla, R.F. Zoeller, Physical activity: physical activity and the metabolic syndrome: a review of the evidence. AJLM 2, 118–125 (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.E. Laaksonen, H.M. Lakka, J.T. Salonen, L.K. Niskanen, R. Rauramaa, T.A. Lakka, Low levels of leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness predict development of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 25, 1612–1618 (2002)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.R. Carnethon, C.M. Loria, J.O. Hill, S. Sidney, P.J. Savage, K. Liu, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, 1985–2001. Diabetes Care 27, 2707–2715 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.G. Wannamethee, A.G. Shaper, P.H. Whincup, Modifiable lifestyle factors and the metabolic syndrome in older men: effects of lifestyle changes. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 54, 1909–1914 (2006)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    I. Holme, S. Tonstad, A.J. Sogaard, P.G. Larsen, L.L. Haheim, Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study. BMC Public Health 7, 154 (2007)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. Wilsgaard, B.K. Jacobsen, Lifestyle factors and incident metabolic syndrome. The Tromsø Study 1979-2001. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 78, 217–224 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    X. Yang, R. Telama, M. Hirvensalo, N. Mattsson, J.S. Viikari, O.T. Raitakari, The longitudinal effects of physical activity history on metabolic syndrome. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 40, 1424–1431 (2008)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Cheriyath, Y. Duan, Z. Qian, L. Nambiar, D. Liao, Obesity, physical activity and the development of metabolic syndrome: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Prev. Rehabil. 17, 309–313 (2010)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Li, H. Yatsuya, H. Iso, K. Tamakoshi, H. Toyoshima, Incidence of metabolic syndrome according to combinations of lifestyle factors among middle-aged Japanese male workers. Prev. Med. 51, 118–122 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.J. Peterson, M.C. Morey, C. Giuliani, C.F. Pieper, K.R. Evenson, V. Mercer, M. Visser, J.S. Brach, S.B. Kritchevsky, B.H. Goodpaster, S. Rubin, S. Satterfield, E.M. Simonsick, Health ABC Study, Walking in old age and development of metabolic syndrome: the health, aging, and body composition study. Metab. Syndr. Relat. Disord. 8, 317–322 (2010)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V.M. Silveira, B.L. Horta, D.P. Gigante, M.R. Azevedo, Metabolic syndrome in the 1982 Pelotas cohort: effect of contemporary lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Arq. Bras. Endocrinol. Metabol. 54, 390–397 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Jääskeläinen, C.G. Magnussen, K. Pahkala, V. Mikkilä, M. Kähönen, M.A. Sabin, M. Fogelholm, N. Hutri-Kähönen, L. Taittonen, R. Telama, T. Laitinen, E. Jokinen, T. Lehtimäki, J.S. Viikari, O.T. Raitakari, M. Juonala, Childhood nutrition in predicting metabolic syndrome in adults: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study. Diabetes Care 35, 1937–1943 (2012)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A.H. Laursen, O.P. Kristiansen, J.L. Marott, P. Schnohr, E. Prescott, Intensity versus duration of physical activity: implications for the metabolic syndrome. A prospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2, e001711 (2012)PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P.T. Bradshaw, K.L. Monda, J. Stevens, Metabolic syndrome in healthy obese, overweight, and normal weight individuals: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 21, 203–209 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Wennberg, P.E. Gustafsson, D.W. Dunstan, M. Wennberg, A. Hammarström, Television viewing and low leisure-time physical activity in adolescence independently predict the metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. Diabetes Care 36, 2090–2097 (2013)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. DerSimonian, N. Laird, Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin. Trials 7, 177–188 (1986)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    N. Mantel, W. Haenszel, Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 22, 719–748 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C.B. Begg, M. Mazumdar, Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50, 1088–1101 (1994)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K.G. Alberti, P.Z. Zimmet, Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus, provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet. Med. 15, 539–553 (1998)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.M. Grundy, H.B. Brewer, J.I. Cleeman, S.C. Smith, C. Lenfant, American Heart Association; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 109, 433–438 (2004)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. http://www.idf.org/webdata/docs/MetS_def_update2006.pdf.(2006).Accessed 14 Nov 2013
  30. 30.
    S.M. Grundy, J.I. Cleeman, S.R. Daniels, K.A. Donato, R.H. Eckel, B.A. Franklin, D.J. Gordon, R.M. Krauss, P.J. Savage, S.C. Smith, J.A. Spertus, F. Costa, American Heart Association; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation 112, 2735–2752 (2005)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    K.G. Alberti, R.H. Eckel, S.M. Grundy, P.Z. Zimmet, J.I. Cleeman, K.A. Donato, J.C. Fruchart, W.P. James, C.M. Loria, S.C. Smith, International Diabetes Federation TaskForce on Epidemiology and Prevention; Hational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; International Association for the Study of Obesity, Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 120, 1640–1645 (2009)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Sattelmair, J. Pertman, E.L. Ding, H.W. Kohl, W. Haskell, I.M. Lee, Dose response between physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Circulation 124, 789–795 (2011)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Li, J. Siegrist, Physical activity and risk of cardiovascular disease–a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, 391–407 (2012)PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    C.Y. Jeon, R.P. Lokken, F.B. Hu, R.M. van Dam, Physical activity of moderate intensity and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care 30, 744–752 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Huai, H. Xun, K.H. Reilly, Y. Wang, W. Ma, B. Xi, Physical activity and risk of hypertension: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Hypertension (2013). doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01965 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Je, J.Y. Jeon, E.L. Giovannucci, J.A. Meyerhardt, Association between physical activity and mortality in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int. J. Cancer (2013). doi: 10.1002/ijc.28208 PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Y. Wu, D. Zhang, S. Kang, Physical activity and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137, 869–882 (2013)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.Y. Sun, L. Shi, X.D. Gao, S.F. Xu, Physical activity and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 13, 3143–3147 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    D. Sluik, B. Buijsse, R. Muckelbauer, R. Kaaks, B. Teucher, N.F. Johnsen, A. Tjønneland, K. Overvad, J.N. Ostergaard, P. Amiano, E. Ardanaz, B. Bendinelli, V. Pala, R. Tumino, F. Ricceri, A. Mattiello, A.M. Spijkerman, E.M. Monninkhof, A.M. May, P.W. Franks, P.M. Nilsson, P. Wennberg, O. Rolandsson, G. Fagherazzi, M.C. Boutron-Ruault, F. Clavel-Chapelon, J.M. Castaño, V. Gallo, H. Boeing, U. Nöthlings, Physical activity and mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Arch. Intern. Med. 172, 1285–1295 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Rossi, A. Dikareva, S.L. Bacon, S.S. Daskalopoulou, The impact of physical activity on mortality in patients with high blood pressure: a systematic review. J. Hypertens. 30, 1277–1288 (2012)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    US Department of Health and Human Services, Physical activity guidelines for Americans (Washington, DC, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Onat, H. Ozhan, A.M. Esen, S. Albayrak, A. Karabulut, G. Can, G. Hergenç, Prospective epidemiologic evidence of a “protective” effect of smoking on metabolic syndrome and diabetes among Turkish women without associated overall health benefit. Atherosclerosis 193, 380–388 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Pietroiusti, A. Neri, G. Somma, L. Coppeta, I. Iavicoli, A. Bergamaschi, A. Magrini, Incidence of metabolic syndrome among night-shift healthcare workers. Occup. Environ. Med. 67, 54–57 (2010)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Maternal and Child Health Care, School of Public HealthShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public HealthShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations