Changes in ghrelin and asymmetrical dimethylarginine in obese Mexican adolescents after six-month lifestyle intervention
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a six-month lifestyle intervention on ghrelin and asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) in obese Mexican adolescents. A total of 65 obese Mexican adolescents aged 10–16 years completed a six-month lifestyle intervention. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at six months. Twenty normal-weight adolescents were also evaluated at baseline. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Ghrelin and ADMA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Obese adolescents presented significantly higher triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and ADMA levels, while ghrelin was significantly lower. The lifestyle intervention led to a significant improvement in HOMA-IR, ghrelin, and ADMA in the whole studied obese subjects. ADMA and ghrelin levels were associated with BMI and IR components. According to the value of HOMA-IR, the obese subjects were divided into subjects with or without IR, no difference in ghrelin and ADMA was observed in these two subgroups. After intervention, the obese with IR showed increased ghrelin and decreased ADMA, while the obese without IR only showed improvement in ghrelin. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the changes of systolic blood pressure were the only predictor for the changes of ghrelin in the obese with IR. Our study demonstrated the increase of ADMA and the decrease of ghrelin in obese adolescents. Lifestyle intervention improved insulin resistance, decreased ADMA, and increased ghrelin in obese subjects with IR although no significant weight loss was observed.