, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 252–265 | Cite as

The incidence and prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity

  • Donald S. A. McLeodEmail author
  • David S. Cooper


The thyroid gland is the most common organ affected by autoimmune disease. Other autoimmune diseases, most notably type 1 diabetes mellitus, are increasing in incidence. It is unknown whether autoimmune thyroid diseases are following the same pattern. This review summarizes studies of autoimmune thyroid disease incidence and prevalence since 1950, not only for these measures of occurrences, but also for commenting on identified risk factors for thyroid autoimmunity. We find that incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease is currently higher than in historic series although the studies are so variable in design, patient population, disease definition, and laboratory methods that it is impossible to tell whether this difference is real. Further research is required to assess the possibility of changing disease patterns of autoimmune thyroid disease as opposed to simple changes in diagnostic thresholds.


Hashimoto disease Graves disease Autoantibodies Incidence Prevalence 



A Royal Australasian College of Physicians IMS Travelling Fellowship and a Cancer Council Queensland PhD scholarship support D.M.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12020_2012_9703_MOESM1_ESM.doc (634 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 633 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology and MetabolismThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Queensland Institute of Medical ResearchBrisbaneAustralia

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