Endocrine

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 200–219 | Cite as

Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

  • Christian Trolle
  • Britta Hjerrild
  • Line Cleemann
  • Kristian H. Mortensen
  • Claus H. Gravholt
Review

Abstract

The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects of estrogen and androgen insufficiency as well as the effects of sex HRT on morbidity and mortality with special emphasis on evidence based research and areas needing further studies.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Trolle
    • 1
  • Britta Hjerrild
    • 1
  • Line Cleemann
    • 2
  • Kristian H. Mortensen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Claus H. Gravholt
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine and Medical Research LaboratoriesAarhus University HospitalAarhus CDenmark
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsHillerød HospitalHillerødDenmark
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyCambridge University HospitalsCambridgeUK
  4. 4.Department of Molecular MedicineAarhus University HospitalAarhus NDenmark

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