, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 182–189 | Cite as

Total, direct, and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations and metabolic syndrome among the Korean population

  • Jaeseong Jo
  • Ji Eun Yun
  • Heeyeon Lee
  • Heejin Kimm
  • Sun Ha JeeEmail author
Original Article


Total bilirubin, not direct or indirect bilirubin, has been reported to associate inversely with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between bilirubin subtypes and metabolic syndrome among the Korean population. This study included 5,231 Koreans (3,008 men, 2,223 women) aged 30–87 years, who visited the Health promotion centers in Seoul from April, 2006 to June, 2007. The associations of direct, indirect, and total bilirubin classified in quartiles with metabolic syndrome were measured by logistic regression analyses in men and women. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the lowest, 2nd and 3rd quartiles of direct serum bilirubin compared with the highest quartile (reference) were 2.3 (1.6–3.2), 1.8 (1.3–2.4), and 1.8 (1.4–2.4) among men, and 5.5 (2.6–11.5), 3.1 (1.5–6.7), and 1.9 (0.9–4.3) among women, respectively. In a multivariable adjusted model, however, the significance of inverse associations with total and indirect bilirubin became attenuated. The relation was consistent particularly with direct bilirubin in subgroups of metabolic syndrome components such as central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and low HDL-cholesterol in both men and women. Of the three subtypes of serum bilirubin, the inverse association of metabolic syndrome was significantly apparent and consistent with direct bilirubin.


Serum bilirubin Metabolic syndrome 



This study was supported by a grant (10526) from the Seoul City R&BD program and by a grant from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family affairs, Republic of Korea (0920330).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaeseong Jo
    • 1
  • Ji Eun Yun
    • 1
  • Heeyeon Lee
    • 1
  • Heejin Kimm
    • 1
  • Sun Ha Jee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Institute for Health Promotion, Graduate School of Public HealthYonsei UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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