Endocrine

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 77–83 | Cite as

Influence of short- and long-term treadmill exercises on levels of ghrelin, obestatin and NPY in plasma and brain extraction of obese rats

Original Paper

Abstract

This study aims to clarify the effects of exercise on levels of appetite regulatory hormones in plasma and hypothalamus of obese rats. Diet-induced obese rats undergo short- (40 min) and long-term (40 min, 5 days/week for 8 weeks) exercises. The rats ran at a speed of 20 m/min on a 5° slope treadmill. Rats undergoing short-term exercise were divided into C, E0, E1, E3, E12, and E24. Rats undergoing long-term exercise (LE) were compared to long-term control (LC). Concentrations of ghrelin, obestatin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured using radio immuno-assay. Expression of ghrelin receptor (GHSR-1a), putative obestatin receptor (GPR-39), and NPY in the hypothalamus was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. After short-term exercise, the plasma concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin were not changed, but NPY decreased. Ghrelin and obestatin in the hypothalamus decreased, and recovered 12 until 24 h. NPY increased and recovered after 24 h. Expression of GHSR-1a and NPY was not changed and GPR-39 was not observed. In LE, these changes are different in plasma and hypothalamus. It would be concluded appetite and body weight of obese rats are decreased by exercise through reduced level of ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Obestatin seems to have no effect in exercise-induced change in appetite.

Keywords

Obesity Exercise Appetite Ghrelin Obestatin NPY 

References

  1. 1.
    M. Kojima, H. Hosoda, Y. Date, M. Nakazato, H. Matsuo, K. Kangawa, Nature 402, 656–660 (1999)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.E. Cummings, Physiol. Behav. 89, 71–84 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Tschop, D.L. Smiley, M.L. Heiman, Nature 407, 908–913 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Shiiya, M. Nakazato, M. Mizuta, Y. Date, M.S. Mondal, M. Tanaka, S. Nozoe, H. Hosoda, K. Kangawa, S. Matsukura, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87, 240–244 (2002)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.E. Cummings, J.Q. Purnell, R.S. Frayo, K. Schmidova, B.E. Wisse, D.S. Weigle, Diabetes 50, 1714–1719 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B.O. Yildiz, M.A. Suchard, M.L. Wong, S.M. McCann, J. Licinio, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 10434–10439 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Marzullo, A. Caumo, G. Savia, B. Verti, G.E. Walker, S. Maestrini, A. Tagliaferri, B.A. Di, A. Liuzzi, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 91, 4124–4130 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.M. Wren, C.J. Small, C.R. Abbott, W.S. Dhillo, L.J. Seal, M.A. Cohen, R.L. Batterham, S. Taheri, S.A. Stanley, M.A. Ghatei, S.R. Bloom, Diabetes 50, 2540–2547 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.M. Wren, L.J. Seal, M.A. Cohen, A.E. Brynes, G.S. Frost, K.G. Murphy, W.S. Dhillo, M.A. Ghatei, S.R. Bloom, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86, 5992 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Asakawa, A. Inui, T. Kaga, H. Yuzuriha, T. Nagata, N. Ueno, S. Makino, M. Fujimiya, A. Niijima, M.A. Fujino, M. Kasuga, Gastroenterology 120, 337–345 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Levin, T. Edholm, P.T. Schmidt, P. Gryback, H. Jacobsson, M. Degerblad, C. Hoybye, J.J. Holst, J.F. Rehfeld, P.M. Hellstrom, E. Naslund, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 91, 3296–3302 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Masuda, T. Tanaka, N. Inomata, N. Ohnuma, S. Tanaka, Z. Itoh, H. Hosoda, M. Kojima, K. Kangawa, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 276, 905–908 (2000)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Sato, S. Kanai, S. Takano, M. Kurosawa, A. Funakoshi, K. Miyasaka, Jpn J. Physiol. 53, 443–449 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Tang-Christensen, N. Vrang, S. Ortmann, M. Bidlingmaier, T.L. Horvath, M. Tschop, Endocrinology 145, 4645–4652 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Choi, S.G. Roh, Y.H. Hong, Y.B. Shrestha, D. Hishikawa, C. Chen, M. Kojima, K. Kangawa, S. Sasaki, Endocrinology 144, 754–759 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Muccioli, N. Pons, C. Ghe, F. Catapano, R. Granata, E. Ghigo, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 498, 27–35 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.S. Kim, C.Y. Yoon, P.G. Jang, Y.J. Park, C.S. Shin, H.S. Park, J.W. Ryu, Y.K. Pak, J.Y. Park, K.U. Lee, S.Y. Kim, H.K. Lee, Y.B. Kim, K.S. Park, Mol. Endocrinol. 18, 2291–2301 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Tschop, C. Weyer, P.A. Tataranni, V. Devanarayan, E. Ravussin, M.L. Heiman, Diabetes 50, 707–709 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.V. Zhang, P.G. Ren, O. Avsian-Kretchmer, C.W. Luo, R. Rauch, C. Klein, A.J. Hsueh, Science 310, 996–999 (2005)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K.K. McKee, C.P. Tan, O.C. Palyha, J. Liu, S.D. Feighner, D.L. Hreniuk, Genomics 46, 426–434 (1997)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    V.R. Jackson, H.P. Nothacker, O. Civelli, Neuroreport 17, 813–816 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. Holst, K.L. Egerod, E. Schild, S.P. Vickers, S. Cheetham, L.O. Gerlach, Endocrinology 148, 13–20 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Lauwers, B. Landuyt, L. Arckens, L. Schoofs, W. Luyten, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 351, 21–25 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Szentirmai, I. Hajdu, J.F. Obal, J.M. Krueger, Brain Res. 1088, 131–140 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. Szentirmai, J.M. Krueger, Neurosci. Lett. 404, 222–226 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. Bresciani, D. Rapetti, F. Dona, I. Bulgarelli, L. Tamiazzo, V. Locatelli, J. Endocrinol. Invest. 29, 16–18 (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D. Moechars, I. Depoortere, B. Moreaux, S.B. de, I. Goris, L. Hoskens, Gastroenterology 131, 1131–1141 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Nogueiras, P. Pfluger, S. Tovar, A. Myrtha, S. Mitchell, A. Morris, Endocrinology 148, 21–26 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L.M. Seoane, O. Al-Massadi, Y. Pazos, U. Pagotto, F.F. Casanueva, J. Endocrinol. Invest. 29, 13–15 (2006)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A.M. Wren, C.J. Small, C.R. Abbott, W.S. Dhillo, L.J. Seal, M.A. Cohen, R.L. Batterham, S. Taheri, S.A. Stanley, M.A. Ghatei, R. Stephen, Diabetes 50, 2540–2547 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Kallio, U. Pensonen, M.K. Karvonen, M. Kojima, H. Hosoda, K. Kangawa, M. Koulu, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86, 5348–5352 (2001)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Schmidt, C. Maier, G. Schaller, P. Nowotny, M. Bayerle-Eder, B. Buranyi, A. Luger, M. Wolzt, Horm. Metab. Res. 36, 174–177 (2004)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.A. Zoladz, S.J. Konturek, Physiol. Pharmacol. 56, 63–85 (2005)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.R. Kraemer, R.J. Durand, E.O. Acevedo, L.G. Johnson, G.R. Kraemer, E.P. Hebert, V.D. Castracane, Exp. Biol. Med. 229, 240–246 (2005)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. Takano, T. Morita, H. Iida, K. Asada, M. Kato, K. Uno, K. Hirose, A. Matsumoto, K. Takenaka, Y. Hirata, F. Eto, R. Nagai, Y. Sato, T. Nakajima, Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 65–73 (2005)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    U. Andersson, J.T. Treebak, J.N. Nielsen, K.L. Smith, C.R. Abbott, C.J. Small, D. Carling, E.A. Richter, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2, 719–725 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    E.F. Karen, M.T. Anne, R.S. Frayo, S.S. Robert, B.R. Kumar, Y. Yutaka, S.T. Shelley, E.C. David, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90, 2820–2825 (2005)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. Hyun, J.K. Hyun, L. Sangyeoup, U.K. Tae, J.K. Yun, B.K. Sang, Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 11, e40 (2006)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    K.J. Mackelvie, G.S. Meneilly, D. Elahi, C.K. Alfred, S.B. Wong, P.C. Jean, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92, 648–654 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M.J. De Souza, R. Hontscharuk, M. Olmsted, G. Kerr, N. Willianms, Appetite 48, 359–367 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D.E. Lewis, L. Shellard, D.G. Koeslag, D.E. Boer, H.D. McCarthy, P.E. McKibbin, J.C. Russell, G. Williams, Am. J. Physiol. 264, 279–284 (1993)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Verger, M.T. Lanteaume, J. Louis-Sylvestre, Appetite 22, 159–164 (1994)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sports Physiology, Sport Science CollegeBeijing Sport UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations