The Crosstalk Between Bone and Fat in HIV-Infected Patients, with a Focus on Lipodystrophy
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Low bone mineral density and osteoporosis are prevalent in cohorts of HIV-positive patients, with increased fracture rates also described. HIV is a disease characterised by abnormalities in body fat metabolism, particularly HIV-associated lipodystrophy, a common long-term side effect of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. Given the close metabolic relationships between bone and fat, the presence of these two conditions raises questions as to potential pathogenic links between the two. This review discusses both conditions and identifies potential factors that may link abnormalities in fat distribution with decreased bone mineral density.