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Ionizing Radiation and Bone Loss: Space Exploration and Clinical Therapy Applications

  • Jeffrey S. Willey
  • Shane A. J. Lloyd
  • Gregory A. Nelson
  • Ted A. BatemanEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Damage to normal, nontumor bone tissue following therapeutic irradiation increases the risk of fracture among cancer patients. For example, women treated for various pelvic tumors have been shown to have a greater than 65% increased incidence of hip fracture by 5 years postradiotherapy. Another practical situation in which exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity is during extended spaceflight missions. There is a limited understanding of how spaceflight-relevant doses and types of radiation can influence astronaut bone health, particularly when combined with the significant effects of mechanical unloading experienced in microgravity. Historically, negative effects on osteoblasts have been studied. Radiation exposure has been shown to damage osteoblast precursors. Damage to local vasculature has been observed, ranging from decreased lumen diameter to complete ablation within the irradiated volume, causing a state of hypoxia. These effects result in suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone turnover. More recently, however, we have demonstrated in preclinical mouse models, a very rapid but transient increase in osteoclast activity after exposure to spaceflight and clinically relevant radiation doses. Combined with long-term suppression of bone formation, this skeletal damage may cause long-term deficits. This review will present a broad set of literature outlining our current set knowledge of both clinical therapy and space exploration exposure to ionizing radiation. Additionally, we will discuss prevention of the initial osteoclast-mediated bone loss, the need to promote normal bone turnover and long-term quality of bone tissue, and our hypothesized molecular mechanisms.

Keywords

Osteoporosis Fracture Ionizing radiation Radiation therapy Spaceflight Microgravity Space radiation Osteoclasts Bone Inflammation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58 (BL01302 TAB; PF01403 JSW), NASA Cooperative Agreements NCC9-79 and NCC9-149 (GAN), and the National Institutes of Health (NIAMS R21AR054889 TAB). Support was also provided by the National Institutes of Health (T32 CA113267 JSW). We want to thank Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals for providing an unrestricted grant (TAB JSW) and to the MD/PhD Program at The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine for partial funding support (SAJL).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey S. Willey
    • 1
  • Shane A. J. Lloyd
    • 2
  • Gregory A. Nelson
    • 3
  • Ted A. Bateman
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Section of Molecular Medicine and Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer CenterWake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Division of Musculoskeletal SciencesThe Pennsylvania State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiation MedicineLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA
  4. 4.Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Radiation OncologyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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