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ACE-Triggered Hypertension Incites Stroke: Genetic, Molecular, and Therapeutic Aspects

  • Kanika Vasudeva
  • Renuka Balyan
  • Anjana MunshiEmail author
Review Paper
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

Stroke is the second largest cause of death worldwide. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has emerged as an important player in the pathogenesis of hypertension and consequently stroke. It encodes ACE enzyme that converts the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I to active octapeptide, angiotensin II (Ang II). Dysregulation in the expression of ACE gene, on account of genetic variants or regulation by miRNAs, alters the levels of ACE in the circulation. Variable expression of ACE affects the levels of Ang II. Ang II acts through different signal transduction pathways via various tyrosine kinases (receptor/non-receptor) and protein serine/threonine kinases, initiating a downstream cascade of molecular events. In turn these activated molecular pathways might lead to hypertension and inflammation thereby resulting in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases including stroke. In order to regulate the overexpression of ACE, many ACE inhibitors and blockers have been developed, some of which are still under clinical trials.

Keywords

Stroke Genetic variants miRNAs Neurons Glial cells Vascular smooth muscle cells 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are also grateful to the Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India, for providing the academic, administrative, and infrastructural support to carry out this work. Ms. Kanika Vasudeva is grateful to University Grants Commission (UGC), India, for providing financial assistance in the form of UGC-NET, JRF.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Genetics and Molecular MedicineCentral University of PunjabBathindaIndia

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