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NeuroMolecular Medicine

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 83–96 | Cite as

Epigenetics of Multiple Sclerosis: An Updated Review

  • Cem İsmail Küçükali
  • Murat Kürtüncü
  • Arzu Çoban
  • Merve Çebi
  • Erdem TüzünEmail author
Review Paper

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease characterized with autoimmune response against myelin proteins and progressive axonal loss. The heterogeneity of the clinical course and low concordance rates in monozygotic twins have indicated the involvement of complex heritable and environmental factors in MS pathogenesis. MS is more often transmitted to the next generation by mothers than fathers suggesting an epigenetic influence. One of the possible reasons of this parent-of-origin effect might be the human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*15 allele, which is the major risk factor for MS and regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. Moreover, major environmental risk factors for MS, vitamin D deficiency, smoking and Ebstein–Barr virus are all known to exert epigenetic changes. In the last few decades, compelling evidence implicating the role of epigenetics in MS has accumulated. Increased or decreased acetylation, methylation and citrullination of genes regulating the expression of inflammation and myelination factors appear to be particularly involved in the epigenetics of MS. Although much less is known about epigenetic factors causing neurodegeneration, epigenetic mechanisms regulating axonal loss, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in MS are in the process of identification. Additionally, expression levels of several microRNAs (miRNAs) (e.g., miR-155 and miR-326) are increased in MS brains and potential mechanisms by which these factors might influence MS pathogenesis have been described. Certain miRNAs may also be potentially used as diagnostic biomarkers in MS. Several reagents, especially histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to ameliorate the symptoms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Ongoing efforts in this field are expected to result in characterization of epigenetic factors that can be used in prediction of treatment responsive MS patients, diagnostic screening panels and treatment methods with specific mechanism of action.

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis Epigenetics Genetics miRNA Autoimmunity 

Notes

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cem İsmail Küçükali
    • 1
  • Murat Kürtüncü
    • 2
  • Arzu Çoban
    • 2
  • Merve Çebi
    • 1
  • Erdem Tüzün
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Experimental Medicine (DETAE)Istanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Neurology, Istanbul Faculty of MedicineIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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