NeuroMolecular Medicine

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 244–261 | Cite as

MicroRNAs: A Light into the “Black Box” of Neuropediatric Diseases?

  • Ahmed Omran
  • Dalia Elimam
  • Sherien Shalaby
  • Jing Peng
  • Fei Yin
Review Paper


Although there have been tremendous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric brain diseases in the last few decades, the causes and pathogenesis of these diseases remain to be elucidated. Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) diseases create both short- and long-term impairments and disabilities and are therefore one of the leading causes for emotional, financial, and social burden to patients, their families, and their social network. The significant pediatric morbidity and mortality rates caused by CNS diseases call for equally significant efforts toward a better understanding of the etiology and nature of these disorders. Recent studies show the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various aspects of central nervous system development and neuropsychiatric diseases. This review focuses on the role of miRNAs in different pediatric neurological conditions. We emphasize the importance of microRNA-based research in combating pediatric neurological disorders. We believe this approach will result in novel therapies to secure normal development and prevent disabilities in the pediatric population.


MicroRNA Neurodevelopment Neuropediatric diseases Gene expression 





Duchenne muscular dystrophy




Very-long-chain fatty acids


Hypoxic ischemic brain injuries


Middle cerebral artery occlusion


Neural tube defects


Retinoic acid


Intellectual disability


Autism spectrum disorders


Single nucleotide polymorphisms


Fragile X mental retardation


Fragile X mental retardation protein


Rett syndrome


Methyl-CpG binding protein 2


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


DiGeorge syndrome


Down syndrome


Spinal cord injury


Temporal lobe epilepsy


Becker muscular dystrophy


Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Omran
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dalia Elimam
    • 2
  • Sherien Shalaby
    • 2
  • Jing Peng
    • 1
  • Fei Yin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsXiangya Hospital of Central South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics and NeonatologySuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

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