ER Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Calpain/JNK Activation are Involved in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Death by Unconjugated Bilirubin
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Research on the mechanisms of bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction focuses mainly on neuronal death, astrocyte-mediated events and microglia activation. Although myelin damage by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) has been documented in neonatal kernicterus cases, the events leading to myelination impairment were never explored. This condition may occur by reduced oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) number, or failure of OPC to differentiate in myelinating oligodendrocytes. We have shown that UCB elicits an inflammatory response, glutamate release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in neurons and glial cells, biomolecules with toxic properties on OPC. Hence, we propose to examine whether UCB determines OPC demise and, if so, which signaling pathways are involved. Our results show that OPC display increased apoptosis and necrosis-like cell death upon UCB exposure, mediated by early signals of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress [e.g. upregulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78, inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE)-1α and activation transcription factor (ATF)-6, as well as activation of caspase-2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)], followed by mitochondrial dysfunction (e.g. loss of mitochondria membrane potential and caspase-9 activation). The later calpain activation points to intracellular Ca2+ overload and intervention of both ER and mitochondria. Downstream production of ROS may derive from mitochondria damage and secondary injuries, possibly determining the second cycle of GRP78, IRE-1α, caspase-2 and JNK activation. Moreover, inhibition of caspases, calpains and oxidative stress, by using specific inhibitors, prevented UCB-induced OPC death. UCB did not induce the release of cytokines or glutamate by OPC. These results indicate that UCB by reducing OPC survival, through a cascade of programmed intracellular events triggered by ER stress and mitochondria dysfunction, can compromise myelinogenesis.
KeywordsCell death ER-mitochondria unit disruption Oligodendrocyte precursor primary cultures Unconjugated bilirubin toxicity
This work was supported by the strategic project PEst-OE/SAU/UI4013/2011 and PTDC/SAU-NEU/64385/2006 grants from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), Lisbon, Portugal (to D. B.). A. B. was recipient of a PhD fellowship (SFRH/BD/43885/2008) from FCT. The funding organization had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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