Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 317–326 | Cite as

A Critical Review of the Effects of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine on the Eye

  • Nathalie Costedoat-ChalumeauEmail author
  • Bertrand Dunogué
  • Gaëlle Leroux
  • Nathalie Morel
  • Moez Jallouli
  • Véronique Le Guern
  • Jean-Charles Piette
  • Antoine P. Brézin
  • Ronald B. Melles
  • Michael F. MarmorEmail author


Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine have been used for more than 50 years to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other rheumatic diseases. In general, these drugs are well tolerated and rarely need to be discontinued because of an adverse systemic reaction. However, both medications can be irreversibly toxic to the retina. A new study indicates that toxicity is not as rare as once believed, but depends critically on daily dosage and duration of use, as well as other risk factors. With attention to dosage and other factors, and with proper screening for early signs of toxicity, HCQ can be prescribed with relative safety even over long periods of time.


Hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine Antimalarials Systemic lupus erythematosus Retinopathy Drug toxicity 


Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest concerning this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Bertrand Dunogué
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gaëlle Leroux
    • 3
  • Nathalie Morel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Moez Jallouli
    • 1
    • 2
  • Véronique Le Guern
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jean-Charles Piette
    • 4
  • Antoine P. Brézin
    • 1
    • 5
  • Ronald B. Melles
    • 6
  • Michael F. Marmor
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Université René Descartes Paris VParisFrance
  2. 2.Centre de Référence Maladies Auto-Immunes et Systémiques Rares, Service de Médecine Interne Pôle MédecineHôpital Cochin, AP-HPParis Cedex 14France
  3. 3.AP-HP, Service de Médecine InterneCentre Hospitalier Universitaire Pitié-SalpêtrièreParis Cedex 13France
  4. 4.Centre de Référence Pour le Lupus Systémique et le Syndrome des Antiphospholipides, Service de Médecine InterneAP-HP, Hôpital Pitié-SalpêtrièreParis Cedex 13France
  5. 5.Service d’OphtalmologieHôpital Cochin, AP-HPParis Cedex 14France
  6. 6.Department of OphthalmologyKaiser Permanente Medical CenterRedwood CityUSA
  7. 7.Byers Eye Institute, Department of OphthalmologyStanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA

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