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Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 219–233 | Cite as

The Mechanisms and Applications of T Cell Vaccination for Autoimmune Diseases: a Comprehensive Review

  • Xin Huang
  • Haijing Wu
  • Qianjin Lu
Article

Abstract

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a spectrum of diseases originating from loss of immunologic self-tolerance and T cell abnormal autoreactivity, causing organ damage and death. However, the pathogenic mechanism of ADs remains unclear. The current treatments of ADs include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), antimalarials, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and biological therapies. With the need to prevent side effects resulting from current treatments and acquire better clinical remission, developing a novel pharmaceutical treatment is extremely urgent. The concept of T cell vaccination (TCV) has been raised as the finding that immunization with attenuated autoreactive T cells is capable of inducing T cell-dependent inhibition of autoimmune responses. TCV may act as an approach to control unwanted adaptive immune response through eliminating the autoreactive T cells. Over the past decades, the effect of TCV has been justified in several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), murine autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and so on. Meanwhile, clinical trials of TCV have confirmed the safety and efficacy in corresponding autoimmune diseases ranging from multiple sclerosis (MS) to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This review aims to summarize the ongoing experimental and clinical trials and elucidate possible molecule mechanisms of TCV.

Keywords

T cell vaccination Autoimmune diseases Autoreactive T cells Clinical application Anti-idiotypic and anti-ergotypic response 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81210308042, No. 81220108017, and No. 30972745), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Plan) (2009CB825605), the programs of the Science-Technology Commission of Hunan Province (2011FJ2007, 2011TP4019-7, 2012WK3046, and 2012TT2015), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the National Key Clinical Speciality Construction Project of National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya HospitalCentral South UniversityChangshaPeople’s Republic of China

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