Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 43, Issue 1–2, pp 156–183

The Challenge of Asthma in Minority Populations

  • Albin B. Leong
  • Clare D. Ramsey
  • Juan C. Celedón
Article

Abstract

The burden and disparity of asthma in race/ethnic minorities present a significant challenge. In this review, we will evaluate data on asthma epidemiology in minorities, examine potential reasons for asthma disparities, and discuss strategies of intervention and culturally sensitive care.

Keywords

Asthma Minority Populations Race Ethnicity 

References

  1. 1.
    A Changing Population. The Wall Street Journal. June 10, 2010. http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/st_census0610b_20100610.html (Accessed 21 November 2010)
  2. 2.
    Pew Research Center. Social and Demographic Trends. Released: February 11, 2008. http://pewsocialtrends.org/2008/02/11/us-population-projections-2005-2050/ (Accessed 21 November 2010)
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. Health Data Interactive. www.cdc.gov/nchs/hdi.htm. [Accessed 11 November 2010]
  4. 4.
    Clancy CM, Kiley JP, Weiss KB (2007) Eliminating asthma disparities through multistakeholder partnerships. Chest 132:1422–1424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weiss KS (2007) Eliminating asthma disparities. A National Workshop to set a working agenda. Chest 132:752S–756SGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Steering Committee. Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC. Lancet 1998;351(9111):1225–1232Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Worldwide variations in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Eur Respir J 1998;12(2):315335Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lai CK, Beasley R, Crane J, Foliaki S, Shah J, Weiland S (2009) Global variation in the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms: phase three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 64(6):476–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pearce N, Ait-Khaled N, Beasley R et al (2007) Worldwide trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms: phase III of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax 62(9):758–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Variations in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, self-reported asthma attacks, and use of asthma medication in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Eur Respir J 1996;9(4):687–695Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pearce N, Sunyer J, Cheng S et al (2000) Comparison of asthma prevalence in the ISAAC and the ECRHS. ISAAC Steering Committee and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Eur Respir J 16(3):420–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sembajwe G, Cifuentes M, Tak SW, Kriebel D, Gore R, Punnett L (2010) National income, self-reported wheezing and asthma diagnosis from the World Health Survey. Eur Respir J 35(2):279–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sheikh A, Panesar SS, Lasserson T, Netuveli G (2004) Recruitment of ethnic minorities to asthma studies. Thorax 59(7):634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hjern A, Haglund B, Bremberg S, Ringback-Weitoft G (1999) Social adversity, migration and hospital admissions for childhood asthma in Sweden. Acta Paediatr 88(10):1107–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Partridge MR (2000) In what way may race, ethnicity or culture influence asthma outcomes? Thorax 55(3):175–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Whitrow MJ, Harding S (2010) Asthma in Black African Black Caribbean and South Asian adolescence in the MRC DASH study: a cross sectional analysis. BMC Pediatrics 10:18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sin DD, Wells H, Svenson LW, Man SF (2002) Asthma and COPD among aboriginals in Alberta, Canada. Chest 121(6):1841–1846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sarkar J, Lix LM, Bruce S, Young TK (2010) Ethnic and regional differences in prevalence and correlates of chronic diseases and risk factors in northern Canada. Prev Chronic Dis 7(1):A13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mitchell EA (1991) Racial inequalities in childhood asthma. Soc Sci Med 32(7):831–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shafazand S, Colice G (2004) Asthma: the epidemic has ended, or has it? Chest 125(6):1969–1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moorman JE, Rudd RA, Johnson CA et al (2007) National Surveillance for Asthma—United States, 1980–2004. Surveillance summaries. MMWR 56(No. SS-8):1–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davidson E, Liu JJ, Sheikh A (2010) The impact of ethnicity on asthma care. Prim Care Resp J 19:202–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    California Health Interview Survey. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. http://www.chis.ucla.edu/. Accessed November 14, 2010
  24. 24.
    Pew Hispanic Center. http://pewhispanic.org/states/?stateid=CA. Accessed November 14, 2010
  25. 25.
    Meng YY, Babey SH, Malcolm E, Brown ER, Chawla N (2003) Asthma in California: findings from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davis AM, Kreutzer R, Lipsett M, King G, Shaikh N (2006) Asthma prevalence in Hispanic and Asian American ethnic subgroups: results from the California Healthy Kids Survey. Pediatrics 118:e363–e370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lin S, Fitzgerald E, Hwang SA, Munsie JP, Stark A (1999) Asthma hospitalization rates and socioeconomic status in New York State (1987–1993). J Asthma 36(3):239–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boudreaux ED, Emond SD, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2003) Acute asthma among adults presenting to the emergency department: the role of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Chest 124(3):803–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jones CA, Clement LT (2010) Inner city asthma. In: Leung DYM, Sampson HA, Geha RS, Szefler SJ (eds) Pediatric allergy. Principles and practice. Mosby, Inc, St. Louis, pp 392–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grant EN, Lyttle CS, Weiss KB (2000) The relation of socioeconomic factors and racial/ethnic differences in US asthma mortality. Am J Public Health 90(12):1923–1925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Miller JE (2000) The effects of race/ethnicity and income on early childhood asthma prevalence and health care use. Am J Public Health 90(3):428–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boudreaux ED, Emond SD, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2003) Race/ethnicity and asthma among children presenting to the emergency department: differences in disease severity and management. Pediatrics 111(5 Pt 1):e615–e621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lieu TA, Lozano P, Finkelstein JA et al (2002) Racial/ethnic variation in asthma status and management practices among children in managed Medicaid. Pediatrics 109(5):857–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yeatts K, Davis KJ, Sotir M, Herget C, Shy C (2003) Who gets diagnosed with asthma? Frequent wheeze among adolescents with and without a diagnosis of asthma. Pediatrics 111(5 Pt 1):1046–1054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weitzman M, Gortmaker S, Sobol A (1990) Racial, social, and environmental risks for childhood asthma. Am J Dis Child 144(11):1189–1194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Weiss ST, Gold DR (1999) Race, socioeconomic factors, and area of residence are associated with asthma prevalence. Pediatr Pulmonol 28(6):394–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weitzman M, Byrd RS, Auinger P (1999) Black and white middle class children who have private health insurance in the United States. Pediatrics 104(1 Pt 2):151–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Smith LA, Hatcher-Ross JL, Wertheimer R, Kahn RS (2005) Rethinking race/ethnicity, income, and childhood asthma: racial/ethnic disparities concentrated among the very poor. Public Health Rep 120(2):109–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Carr W, Zeitel L, Weiss K (1992) Variations in asthma hospitalizations and deaths in New York City. Am J Public Health 82(1):59–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brown ER, Ojeda VD, WYn R, Levan R (2000) Racial and ethnic disparities in access to health insurance and health care. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Holguin F, Mannino DM, Anto J et al (2005) Country of birth as a risk factor for asthma among Mexican Americans. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171(2):103–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weinmayr G, Weiland SK, Bjorksten B et al (2007) Atopic sensitization and the international variation of asthma symptom prevalence in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176(6):565–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eldeirawi K, McConnell R, Freels S, Persky VW (2005) Associations of place of birth with asthma and wheezing in Mexican American children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116(1):42–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chen JT, Krieger N, Van Den Eeden SK, Quesenberry CP (2002) Different slopes for different folks: socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in asthma and hay fever among 173,859 U.S. men and women. Environ Health Perspect 110(Suppl 2):211–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Leung RC, Carlin JB, Burdon JG, Czarny D (1994) Asthma, allergy and atopy in Asian immigrants in Melbourne. Med J Aust 161(7):418–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Leung R (1996) Asthma and migration. Respirology 1(2):123–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stevenson LA, Gergen PJ, Hoover DR, Rosenstreich D, Mannino DM, Matte TD (2001) Sociodemographic correlates of indoor allergen sensitivity among United States children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108(5):747–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Celedon JC, Sredl D, Weiss ST, Pisarski M, Wakefield D, Cloutier M (2004) Ethnicity and skin test reactivity to aeroallergens among asthmatic children in Connecticut. Chest 125(1):85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rosenstreich DL, Eggleston P, Kattan M et al (1997) The role of cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in causing morbidity among inner-city children with asthma. N Engl J Med 336(19):1356–1363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    CDC (2004) Prevalence of cigarette use among 14 racial/ethnic populations, United Sates 1999–2001. MMWR Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 53:49–52Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Heinrich J (2010) Influence of indoor factors in dwellings on the development of childhood asthma. Int J Hyg Environ Health 214:1–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shanawani H (2006) Health disparities and differences in asthma: concepts and controversies. J Asthma 27(1):17–28, vGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sithole F, Douwes J, Burstyn I, Veugelers P (2008) Body mass index and childhood asthma: a linear association? J Asthma 45(6):473–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jacobson JS, Mellins RB, Garfinkel R et al (2008) Asthma, body mass, gender, and Hispanic national origin among 517 preschool children in New York City. Allergy 63(1):87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Litonjua AA, Gold DR (2008) Asthma and obesity: common early-life influences in the inception of disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121(5):1075–1084, quiz 1085–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bender BG, Fuhlbrigge A, Walders N, Zhang L (2007) Overweight, race, and psychological distress in children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Pediatrics 120(4):805–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nagel G, Weinmayr G, Kleiner A, Garcia-Marcos L, Strachan DP (2010) Effect of diet on asthma and allergic sensitisation in the International Study on Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two. Thorax 65(6):516–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mai XM, Becker AB, Liem JJ, Kozyrskyj AL (2009) Fast food consumption counters the protective effect of breastfeeding on asthma in children? Clin Exp Allergy 39(4):556–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wickens K, Barry D, Friezema A et al (2005) Fast foods—are they a risk factor for asthma? Allergy 60(12):1537–1541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brehm JM, Schuemann B, Fuhlbrigge AL et al (2010) Serum Vitamin D levels and severe asthma exacerbations in the Childhood Asthma Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 126:52.e5–58.e5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lemstra M, Neudorf C, D’Arcy C, Kunst A, Warren LM, Bennett NR (2008) A systematic review of depressed mood and anxiety by SES in youth aged 10–15 years. Can J Public Health 99(2):125–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bjelland I, Krokstad S, Mykletun A, Dahl AA, Tell GS, Tambs K (2008) Does a higher educational level protect against anxiety and depression? The HUNT study. Soc Sci Med 66(6):1334–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kozyrskyj AL, Mai XM, McGrath P, Hayglass KT, Becker AB, Macneil B (2008) Continued exposure to maternal distress in early life is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177(2):142–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cohen RT, Canino GJ, Bird HR, Celedon JC (2008) Violence, abuse, and asthma in Puerto Rican children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178(5):453–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Weil CM, Wade SL, Bauman LJ, Lynn H, Mitchell H, Lavigne J (1999) The relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma morbidity in inner-city children with asthma. Pediatrics 104(6):1274–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chandra D, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2009) Race/Ethnicity differences in the inpatient management of acute asthma in the United States. Chest 135(6):1527–1534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Joseph CL, Havstad SL, Ownby DR, Johnson CC, Tilley BC (1998) Racial differences in emergency department use persist despite allergist visits and prescriptions filled for anti-inflammatory medications. J Allergy Clin Immunol 101(4 Pt 1):484–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stingone JA, Claudio L (2009) Components of recommended asthma care and the use of long-term control medication among urban children with asthma. Med Care 47(9):940–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Duran-Tauleria E, Rona RJ, Chinn S, Burney P (1996) Influence of ethnic group on asthma treatment in children in 1990–1: national cross sectional study. BMJ 313(7050):148–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ortega AN, Gergen PJ, Paltiel AD, Bauchner H, Belanger KD, Leaderer BP (2002) Impact of site of care, race, and Hispanic ethnicity on medication use for childhood asthma. Pediatrics 109(1):E1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Crocker D, Brown C, Moolenaar R et al (2009) Racial and ethnic disparities in asthma medication usage and health-care utilization: data from the National Asthma Survey. Chest 136(4):1063–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Flores G, Tomany-Korman SC (2008) Racial and ethnic disparities in medical and dental health, access to care, and use of services in US children. Pediatrics 121(2):e286–e298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jones R, Lin S, Munsie JP, Radigan M, Hwang SA (2008) Racial/ethnic differences in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations among children with wheeze in Buffalo, New York. J Asthma 45(10):916–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wright K (2009) Disparities and predictors of emergency department use among California’s African American, Latino, and White children, aged 1–11 years, with asthma. Ethn Dis 19(1):71–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ortega AN, Belanger KD, Paltiel AD, Horwitz SM, Bracken MB, Leaderer BP (2001) Use of health services by insurance status among children with asthma. Med Care 39(10):1065–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Raphael JL, Guadagnolo BA, Beal AC, Giardino AP (2009) Racial and ethnic disparities in indicators of a primary care medical home for children. Acad Pediatr 9(4):221–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stevens GD, Pickering TA, Seid M, Tsai KY (2009) Disparities in the national prevalence of a quality medical home for children with asthma. Acad Pediatr 9(4):234–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Stingone JA, Claudio L (2006) Disparities in the use of urgent health care services among asthmatic children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 97(2):244–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Piper CN, Elder K, Glover S, Baek JD (2008) Racial influences associated with asthma management among children in the United States. Ethn Dis 18(2):225–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Robinson LD Jr, Calmes DP, Bazargan M (2008) The impact of literacy enhancement on asthma-related outcomes among underserved children. J Natl Med Assoc 100(8):892–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Okelo SO, Wu AW, Merriman B, Krishnan JA, Diette GB (2007) Are physician estimates of asthma severity less accurate in black than in white patients? J Gen Intern Med 22(7):976–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wu AC, Smith L, Bokhour B, Hohman KH, Lieu TA (2008) Racial/ethnic variation in parent perceptions of asthma. Ambul Pediatr 8(2):89–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wells K, Pladevall M, Peterson EL et al (2008) Race-ethnic differences in factors associated with inhaled steroid adherence among adults with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178(12):1194–1201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Apter AJ, Boston RC, George M et al (2003) Modifiable barriers to adherence to inhaled steroids among adults with asthma: it’s not just black and white. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(6):1219–1226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Montalto D, Bruzzese JM, Moskaleva G, Higgins-D’Alessandro A, Webber MP (2004) Quality of life in young urban children: does asthma make a difference? J Asthma 41(4):497–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bailey EJ, Cates CJ, Kruske SG et al (2009) Culture-specific programs for children and adults from minority groups who have asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 15(2):CD006580Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chang AB, Taylor B, Masters IBrent, Laifoo Y, Brown ADH (2010) Indigenous healthcare worker involvement for Indigenous adults and children with asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6(5):CD006344Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Togias A, Fenton MJ, Gergen PJ, Rotrosen D, Fauci AS (2010) Asthma in the inner city: the perspective of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:540–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Busse WW (2010) The National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases networks on asthma in inner city children: an approach to improved care. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:529–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Morgan WJ, Crain EF, Gruchalla RS, for the Inner-City Asthma Study Group et al (2004) Results of a home-based environmental intervention among urban children with asthma. N Engl J Med 351:1068–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sullivan SD, Weiss KB, Lynn H, for the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study Investigators (2002) The cost-effectiveness of an inner-city asthma intervention for children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110:576–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Szefler SJ, Gergen PJ, Mitchell H, Morgan W (2010) Achieving asthma control in the inner city: do the National Institutes of Health Asthma Guidelines really work? J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:521–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Landon BE, Hicks LS, O’Malley AJ et al (2007) Improving the management of chronic disease at community health centers. N Engl J Med 356:921–934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bryant-Stephens T (2009) Asthma disparities in urban environments. J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:1199–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Beach MC, Gray TL, Price EG et al (2006) Improving health care quality for racial ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the best evidence regarding provider and organization interventions. BMC Public Health 6:104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    King RK, Green AR, Tan-McGrory A, Donahue EJ, Kimbrough-Sugick J, Betancourt JR (2008) A plan for action: key perspectives from the racial/ethnic disparities strategy forum. Milgrom Quarterly 86:241–272Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Canino G, McQuaid EL, Rand CS (2009) Addressing asthma health disparities: a multilevel challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:1209–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Scirica CV, Celedon JC (2007) Genetics of asthma: potential implications for reducing asthma disparities. Chest 132(5 Suppl):770S–781SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Barnes KC, Grant AV, Hansel NN, Gao P, Dunston GM (2007) African Americans with asthma: genetic insights. Proc Am Thorac Soc 4(1):58–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lester LA, Rich SS, Blumenthal MN et al (2001) Ethnic differences in asthma and associated phenotypes: collaborative study on the genetics of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108(3):357–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Blumenthal MN, Langefeld CD, Beaty TH et al (2004) A genome-wide search for allergic response (atopy) genes in three ethnic groups: collaborative study on the genetics of asthma. Hum Genet 114(2):157–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Xu J, Meyers DA, Ober C et al (2001) Genome-wide screen and identification of gene-gene interactions for asthma-susceptibility loci in three U.S. populations: collaborative study on the genetics of asthma. Am J Hum Genet 68(6):1437–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Huang SK, Mathias RA, Ehrlich E et al (2003) Evidence for asthma susceptibility genes on chromosome 11 in an African-American population. Hum Genet 113(1):71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) (1997) A genome-wide search for asthma susceptibility loci in ethnically diverse populations. Nat Genet 15(4):389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mathias RA, Grant AV, Rafaels N, et al. A genome-wide association study on African-ancestry populations for asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;125(2):336346 e4Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hancock DB, Romieu I, Shi M et al (2009) Genome-wide association study implicates chromosome 9q21.31 as a susceptibility locus for asthma in Mexican children. PLoS Genet 5(8):e1000623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wu H, Romieu I, Shi M, et al. Evaluation of candidate genes in a genome-wide association study of childhood asthma in Mexicans. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;125(2):321327.e13Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Moffatt MF, Kabesch M, Liang L et al (2007) Genetic variants regulating ORMDL3 expression contribute to the risk of childhood asthma. Nature 448(7152):470–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sleiman PM, Annaiah K, Imielinski M et al (2008) ORMDL3 variants associated with asthma susceptibility in North Americans of European ancestry. J Allergy Clin Immunol 122:1225–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Galanter J, Choudhry S, Eng C et al (2008) ORMDL3 gene is associated with asthma in three ethnically diverse populations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177(11):1194–1200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Genuneit J, Cantelmo JL, Weinmayr G et al (2009) A multi-centre study of candidate genes for wheeze and allergy: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase 2. Clin Exp Allergy 39(12):1875–1888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Federico MJ, Covar RA, Brown EE, Leung DY, Spahn JD (2005) Racial differences in T-lymphocyte response to glucocorticoids. Chest 127(2):571–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Choudhry S, Ung N, Avila PC et al (2005) Pharmacogenetic differences in response to albuterol between Puerto Ricans and Mexicans with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171(6):563–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Corvol H, De Giacomo A, Eng C et al (2009) Genetic ancestry modifies pharmacogenetic gene–gene interaction for asthma. Pharmacogenet Genomics 19(7):489–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wechsler ME, Kunselman SJ, Chinchilli VM et al (2009) Effect of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism on response to long acting beta2 agonist in asthma (LARGE trial): a genotype-stratified, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Lancet 374(9703):1754–1764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kang MJ, Lee SY, Kim HB et al (2008) Association of IL-13 polymorphisms with leukotriene receptor antagonist drug responsiveness in Korean children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Pharmacogenet Genomics 18(7):551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Evans DA, McLeod HL, Pritchard S, Tariq M, Mobarek A (2001) Interethnic variability in human drug responses. Drug Metab Dispos 29(4 Pt 2):606–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Howard TD, Postma DS, Jongepier H et al (2003) Association of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) gene with asthma in ethnically diverse populations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112(4):717–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Raby BA, Silverman EK, Kwiatkowski DJ, Lange C, Lazarus R, Weiss ST (2004) ADAM33 polymorphisms and phenotype associations in childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 113(6):1071–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lind DL, Choudhry S, Ung N et al (2003) ADAM33 is not associated with asthma in Puerto Rican or Mexican populations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168(11):1312–1316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Su D, Zhang X, Sui H, Lu F, Jin L, Zhang J (2008) Association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with adult allergic asthma and rhinitis in a Chinese Han population. BMC Med Genet 9:82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lee JH, Park HS, Park SW et al (2004) ADAM33 polymorphism: association with bronchial hyper-responsiveness in Korean asthmatics. Clin Exp Allergy 34(6):860–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Santillan AA, Camargo CA Jr, Ramirez-Rivera A et al (2003) Association between beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms and asthma diagnosis among Mexican adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112(6):1095–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Burchard EG, Silverman EK, Rosenwasser LJ et al (1999) Association between a sequence variant in the IL-4 gene promoter and FEV(1) in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160(3):919–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ober C, Leavitt SA, Tsalenko A et al (2000) Variation in the interleukin 4-receptor alpha gene confers susceptibility to asthma and atopy in ethnically diverse populations. Am J Hum Genet 66(2):517–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Basehore MJ, Howard TD, Lange LA et al (2004) A comprehensive evaluation of IL4 variants in ethnically diverse populations: association of total serum IgE levels and asthma in white subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114(1):80–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Oguma T, Palmer LJ, Birben E, Sonna LA, Asano K, Lilly CM (2004) Role of prostanoid DP receptor variants in susceptibility to asthma. N Engl J Med 351(17):1752–1763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Raby BA, Klimecki WT, Laprise C et al (2002) Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 are not associated with asthma or atopy-related phenotypes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166(11):1449–1456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lazarus R, Klimecki WT, Raby BA et al (2003) Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 9 gene (TLR9): frequencies, pair wise linkage disequilibrium, and haplotypes in three U.S. ethnic groups and exploratory case-control disease association studies. Genomics 81(1):85–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Barnes KC, Grant A, Gao P et al (2006) Polymorphisms in the novel gene acyloxyacyl hydroxylase (AOAH) are associated with asthma and associated phenotypes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 118(1):70–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Via M, De Giacomo A, Corvol H et al (2010) The role of LTA4H and ALOX5AP genes in the risk for asthma in Latinos. Clin Exp Allergy 40(4):582–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Sharma S, Raby BA, Hunninghake GM et al (2009) Variants in TGFB1, dust mite exposure, and disease severity in children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179(5):356–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Pistiner M, Hunninghake GM, Soto-Quiros ME et al (2008) Polymorphisms in IL12A and cockroach allergy in children with asthma. Clin Mol Allergy 6:6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hunninghake GM, Soto-Quiros ME, Lasky-Su J et al (2008) Dust mite exposure modifies the effect of functional IL10 polymorphisms on allergy and asthma exacerbations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 122(1):93–98, 98 e1-5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hersh CP, Raby BA, Soto-Quiros ME et al (2007) Comprehensive testing of positionally cloned asthma genes in two populations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176(9):849–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hunninghake GM, Soto-Quiros ME, Avila L et al (2007) Polymorphisms in IL13, total IgE, eosinophilia, and asthma exacerbations in childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol 120(1):84–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. NIH Publication No. 07–4051: US Dept of Health & Human Resources. August, 2007: 366–368Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Diette GB, Rand C (2007) The contributing role of health-care communication to health disparities for minority patients with asthma. Chest 132:802S–809SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    George M (2001) The challenge of culturally competent health care: applications for asthma. Heart Lung 30:392–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hardie GE, Janson S, Gold W, Carrieri-Kohlman V, Boushey HA (2000) Ethnic differences: word descriptors used by African-American and white asthma patients during induced bronchoconstriction. Chest 117:9935–9943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Pachter LM, Cloutier MM, Bernstein BA (1995) Ethnomedical (folk) remedies for childhood asthma in a mainland Puerto Rican community. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149:982–988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Beach MC, Cooper LA, Robinson KA et al (2004) Strategies for improving minority healthcare quality. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 90 (Prepared by the Johns Hopkins University Evidenced-based Practice Center, Baltimore, MD) AHRQ Publication No. 04-E008-02, Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, JanuaryGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lieu TA, Finkelstein JA, Lozano P et al (2004) Cultural competence policies and other predictors of asthma care quality for Medicaid-insured children. Pediatrics 114:e102–e110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR (eds) The National Academic Press, Washington, D.C. (2003)Google Scholar

Selected Books on Culturally Competent Care

  1. Helman CG. Culture, health and illness, 5th ed. London: Hodder Arnold; 2007Google Scholar
  2. Lipson JG, Dibble SL. Culture & Clinical Care. San Francisco: UCSF Nursing Press; 2005Google Scholar
  3. Purnell LD, Paulanka BJ, Eds. Transcultural health care. A culturally competent approach. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: FA Davis Company; 2008Google Scholar
  4. Spector RE. Cultural diversity in health and illness. 7th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.; 2009Google Scholar

Websites

  1. http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlid=533 \US Department of Public Health, Office of Minority Health (OMH) link to “Asthma Data/Statistics” for African-Americans, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asian-Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. This site also has additional information and resources on cultural competency from OMH. The Office of Minority Health, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources, mission is “to improve and protect the health of racial and ethnic minorities through the development of health policies and programs to eliminate health disparities”
  2. http://www.medlineplus.gov/esp/ MEDLINE plus: NIH’s National Library of Medicine (NLM) offers MEDLINE plus, the Spanish-language companion health Web site to NLM’s MEDLINE, which provides authoritative, full-text medical resources
  3. http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/ http://www.cdc.gov/spanish/enfermedades/asma.html Center for Disease Control and Prevention Asthma Website and hyperlink in Spanish to extensive resources on asthma
  4. http://www.healthfinder.gov/espanol/ Healthfinder en Español: This Spanish-language Web site helps consumers access reliable information quickly and easily on the Internet
  5. http://www.mhcs.health.nsw.gov.au/topics/Asthma.html This is the Weblink on asthma from the New South Wales Multicultural Health Communication Service. It is part of a rich web resource dedicated to providing information and services to improve communication of health care providers with non-English speaking patients. The site has a translated health information base in 64 languages. There are several resources for asthma, but not in all 64 languages
  6. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/asthmainchildren.html U.S. National Library of Medicine hyperlinks to translated documents on asthma and asthma in children in multiple languages
  7. http://www.asthma.org.uk/health_professionals/translated_resources/ Translated “frequently asked questions” in multiple languages from UK Asthma, a charity dedicated to improvement of asthma care in the United Kingdom
  8. http://spiral.tufts.edu/index.html SPIRAL (Selected Patient Information Resources in Asian Languages) web link, which includes Cambodian Khmer, Chinese, Hmong Hmoob, Japanese, Korean, Laotian Lao, Thai, and Vietnamese Tiếng Việt
  9. http://ethnomed.org/patient-education/asthma Translated patient education on asthma information in Amharic and Tigrinya, from EthnoMed, Harborview Medical Center’s ethnic medicine website. In addition at this website are Somali and Cambodian cultural profiles on asthma addition to Amharic and Tigrean
  10. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/specialtopics/lep/ Office for Civil Rights: The HHS Office for Civil Rights drafted written policy guidance to assist health and social services providers in ensuring that persons with limited English skills can effectively access critical health and social services
  11. http://www.aaaai.org/espanol/ Patient information in Spanish from the American Academy of Allergy & Immunology
  12. http://www.asthmacontrol.com/hcp.html Asthma Control Test and Childhood Asthma Control Test in Spanish

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albin B. Leong
    • 1
  • Clare D. Ramsey
    • 2
  • Juan C. Celedón
    • 3
  1. 1.Pediatric Pulmonology and AllergyRoseville Kaiser Medical CenterRosevilleUSA
  2. 2.Sections of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine and Community Health SciencesUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, Allergy and Immunology, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMCUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations