Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 189–198 | Cite as

Prolactin and Autoimmunity

Hyperprolactinemia Correlates with Serositis and Anemia in SLE Patients
  • Hedi Orbach
  • Gisele Zandman-Goddard
  • Mona Boaz
  • Nancy Agmon-Levin
  • Howard Amital
  • Zoltan Szekanecz
  • Gabriella Szucs
  • Josef Rovensky
  • Emese Kiss
  • Andrea Doria
  • Anna Ghirardello
  • Jesus Gomez-Arbesu
  • Ljudmila Stojanovich
  • Francesca Ingegnoli
  • Pier Luigi Meroni
  • Blaz’ Rozman
  • Miri Blank
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld


Evidence points to an association of prolactin to autoimmune diseases. We examined the correlation between hyperprolactinemia and disease manifestations and activity in a large patient cohort. Age- and sex-adjusted prolactin concentration was assessed in 256 serum samples from lupus patients utilizing the LIASON prolactin automated immunoassay method (DiaSorin S.p.A, Saluggia, Italy). Disease activity was defined as present if European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement (ECLAM) > 2 or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) > 4. Lupus manifestations were grouped by organ involvement, laboratory data, and prescribed medications. Hyperprolactinemia was presented in 46/256 (18%) of the cohort. Hyperprolactinemic patients had significantly more serositis (40% vs. 32.4%, p = 0.03) specifically, pleuritis (33% vs. 17%, p = 0.02), pericarditis (30% vs. 12%, p = 0.002), and peritonitis (15% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.003). Hyperprolactinemic subjects exhibited significantly more anemia (42% vs. 26%, p = 0.02) and marginally more proteinuria (65.5% vs. 46%, p = 0.06). Elevated levels of prolactin were not significantly associated with other clinical manifestations, serology, or therapy. Disease activity scores were not associated with hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia in lupus patients is associated with all types of serositis and anemia but not with other clinical, serological therapeutic measures or with disease activity. These results suggest that dopamine agonists may be an optional therapy for lupus patients with hyperprolactinemia.


Prolactin Systemic lupus erythematosus Disease activity Serositis Anemia Proteinuria Rheumatoid arthritis Multiple sclerosis Sjögren’s syndrome Systemic sclerosis Autoimmune thyroid disease 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hedi Orbach
    • 1
  • Gisele Zandman-Goddard
    • 3
    • 7
  • Mona Boaz
    • 4
    • 7
  • Nancy Agmon-Levin
    • 5
    • 7
  • Howard Amital
    • 6
    • 7
  • Zoltan Szekanecz
    • 8
  • Gabriella Szucs
    • 8
  • Josef Rovensky
    • 9
  • Emese Kiss
    • 10
  • Andrea Doria
    • 11
  • Anna Ghirardello
    • 11
  • Jesus Gomez-Arbesu
    • 12
  • Ljudmila Stojanovich
    • 13
  • Francesca Ingegnoli
    • 14
  • Pier Luigi Meroni
    • 14
  • Blaz’ Rozman
    • 15
  • Miri Blank
    • 5
    • 7
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld
    • 5
    • 7
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medicine BWolfson Medical CenterHolonIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Medicine BSheba Medical CenterTel-HashomerIsrael
  3. 3.Department of Medicine CWolfson Medical CenterHolonIsrael
  4. 4.Epidemiology UnitWolfson Medical CenterHolonIsrael
  5. 5.Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases and Medicine BSheba Medical CenterTel-HashomerIsrael
  6. 6.Department of Medicine DMeir Medical CenterTel-AvivIsrael
  7. 7.Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel-Aviv UniversityTel-AvivIsrael
  8. 8.University of DebrecenDebrecenHungary
  9. 9.National Institute of Rheumatic DiseasesPiest’anySlovak Republic
  10. 10.National Institute of Rheumatology and PhysiologyBudapestHungary
  11. 11.Division of RheumatologyUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly
  12. 12.Immunology DepartmentHospital Universitario Central de AsturiasAsturiasSpain
  13. 13.Bezhanijska Kosa University Medical CenterBelgradeSerbia
  14. 14.University of MilanMilanItaly
  15. 15.University Clinical Center LubljianaLubljianaSlovenia

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