Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 129–140

Approach to the Patient With Recurrent Infections

Article

Abstract

Children with a history of recurrent or unusual infections present a diagnostic challenge. Differentiation between frequent infections caused by common risk factors, versus primary immune dysfunction should be based on a detailed history and physical examination and, if indicated, followed by appropriate laboratory studies. A high index of suspicion could lead to an early diagnosis and treatment of an underlying immune deficiency disease. This article presents to physicians an approach to the evaluation of children with recurrent infections. Important details from the history and physical examination, and an appropriate choice of screening laboratory test to be ordered in a given situation are discussed.

Keywords

Immunodeficiency disease Recurrent infections B-cell immune deficiency T-cell immune deficiency Carrier detection Innate immune disorders 

Abbreviations

SCID

Severe combined immunodeficiency disease

CVID

Common variable immunodeficiency

CGD

Chronic granulomatous disease

NEMO

NF-kB essential modulator

XLP

x-linked lymphoproliferative disease

NK

Natural killer

WHIMS

Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, bacterial infections, and myelokathesis

HPV

Human papilloma virus

IPEX

Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, and enteropathy

FOXP3

Forkhead box protein 3

APECED

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis, ectodermal dystrophy syndrome

AIRE

Autoimmune regulator gene

LAD-1

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I

XLA

X-linked agammaglobulinemia

ICF

Immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability and facial anomalies

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Allergy/Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Women & Children’s Hospital of BuffaloSUNY Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical SciencesBuffaloUSA

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