Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 129–140

Approach to the Patient With Recurrent Infections



Children with a history of recurrent or unusual infections present a diagnostic challenge. Differentiation between frequent infections caused by common risk factors, versus primary immune dysfunction should be based on a detailed history and physical examination and, if indicated, followed by appropriate laboratory studies. A high index of suspicion could lead to an early diagnosis and treatment of an underlying immune deficiency disease. This article presents to physicians an approach to the evaluation of children with recurrent infections. Important details from the history and physical examination, and an appropriate choice of screening laboratory test to be ordered in a given situation are discussed.


Immunodeficiency disease Recurrent infections B-cell immune deficiency T-cell immune deficiency Carrier detection Innate immune disorders 



Severe combined immunodeficiency disease


Common variable immunodeficiency


Chronic granulomatous disease


NF-kB essential modulator


x-linked lymphoproliferative disease


Natural killer


Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, bacterial infections, and myelokathesis


Human papilloma virus


Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, and enteropathy


Forkhead box protein 3


Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis, ectodermal dystrophy syndrome


Autoimmune regulator gene


Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I


X-linked agammaglobulinemia


Immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability and facial anomalies


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Allergy/Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Women & Children’s Hospital of BuffaloSUNY Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical SciencesBuffaloUSA

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