Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 85–102 | Cite as

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Autoimmune Disease

Article

Abstract

The etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have long been an enigmatic subject that have involved genetic and environmental factors. Recent intriguing data has contributed to the mechanisms involved, including the relationship of infectious agents and loss of tolerance. This loss of tolerance is illustrated by the data on the immune response to Hepatitis B virus such as the molecular mimicry between HBV antigens and self proteins, the generation of immune complexes between HBV antigens and antibodies, and apoptosis/tissue damage resulting in the exposure of intracellular antigens to the immune system. In this paper, we review the current database related to HBV infection and a variety of autoimmune conditions, including autoimmune hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, aplastic anemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, thyroid disease and uveitis.

Keywords

Hepatitis B virus Autoimmune disease Autoimmune hepatitis Systemic lupus erythomatosus Antiphospholipid syndrome Polyarteritis nodosa Rheumatoid arthritis Type 1 diabetes Multiple sclerosis Thyroid disease and uveitis 

Abbreviations

HbsAg

hepatitis B surface antigen

HbsAb

hepatitis B surface antibody

HbcAb

hepatitis B core antibody

HbeAg

hepatitis B e antigen

HbeAb

hepatitis B e antibody

HBx protein

hepatitis B × protein

AID

autoimmune disease

MS

multiple sclerosis

APS

antiphospholipid syndrome

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

GN

Glomerulonephritis

MN

membranous nephropathy

PAN

polyarteritis nodosa

AIH

autoimmune hepatitis

T1D

type 1 diabetes

EAE

experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

MBP

myelin basic protein

aCL

anticardiolipin

b2GPI

b2-glycoprotein I

RF

rheumatoid factor

CCP

cyclic citrullinated peptide

ANA

antinuclear antibodies

SMA

smooth muscle antibodies

LKM1

Liver/kidney microsomes type 1

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ram Maya
    • 1
  • M. Eric Gershwin
    • 2
  • Yehuda Shoenfeld
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medicine ‘B’ & Center for Autoimmune DiseasesChaim Sheba Medical CenterTel-HashomerIsrael
  2. 2.Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Incumbent of the Laura Schwarz-Kip Chair for Research of Autoimmune DiseasesTel-Aviv UniversityTel-AvivIsrael

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