Stem Cell Reviews and Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 385–397 | Cite as

Effect of Everolimus on Heterogenous Renal Cancer Cells Populations Including Renal Cancer Stem Cells

  • Anna KornakiewiczEmail author
  • Anna M. Czarnecka
  • Mohammed I. Khan
  • Paweł Krasowski
  • Anna V. Kotrys
  • Cezary Szczylik


The aim of this study was to compare effect of everolimus on growth of different renal cell carcinoma (RCC) populations and develop experimental design to measure the early response of everolimus in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) cell lines including renal cancer stem cells. Effect of everolimus on RCC cell lines which include primary (786-0) and metastatic (ACHN) RCC cell lines as well as heterogenous populations of tumor cells of different histological RCC subtypes (clear cell RCC and papillary RCC) was measured when treated with everolimus in the range of 1–9 µM. Gene expression profiling using microarray was performed to determine the early response to everolimus in ccRCC cell lines after optimizing concentration of drug. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was done which mainly focused on basic genes related to mTOR, hormonal and metabolic pathways. Everolimus acts on RCC cells in a dose—dependent manner. In all examined cell lines IC50 dose was possible to calculate after the third day of treatment. In ccRCC lines (parental and stem cell) everolimus changes expression of mTOR complexes elements and elements of related pathways when treated with optimized doses of drug. Characteristic expression profile for ccRCC cells at an early exposure time to everolimus is to elucidate. Wevarie include some basic observations derived from data analysis in the context of mechanism of action of drug with a view to better understand biology of renal cancer cells.


Everolimus Renal cell carcinoma Clear cell renal cell carcinoma Renal cancer stem cells Experimental design 



Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1


Primary tumor cell line


Malignant pleural effusion of metastatic renal adenocarcinoma cell line


Adrenocorticotropic hormone


Healthy kidney cells


Clear cell renal cell carcinoma - parental cell line


Clear cell renal cell carcinoma–stem cell line


Gene Set Enrichment Analysis


Human chorionic gonadotropin


Hypoxia-inducible factor 1- alpha


Hypoxia-inducible factor 2-alpha


Human kidney cancer stem cells


Human parental kidney cancer stem cells


Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1


Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2


Papillary renal cell carcinoma – parental stem cell line


Papillary renal cell carcinoma - stem cell line


Renal cell carcinoma


p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1)



Research supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education “Diamond grant” no. DI2012007842.

Authors’ Contribution

The study was designed and developed by AK. Experiments were performed by AK, PK, AVK. Figures were prepared by AK and MIK. Design of experiments was based on AC and CS concepts and previous projects. Creating research design was performed by AK and supported by AMC and MIK. Literature search was performed by AK and supported by AMC. Design of data analysis was supported by MIK and AVK. The manuscript was written and drafted by AK. Draft of manuscript was edited by AK, AMC, AVK, MIK. Scientific work was supported and guided by CS.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors indicate no potential conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

12015_2018_9804_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (186 kb)
Supplementary table 1 (S1): List of differentially expressed genes in everolimus treated HPKCSC cells. (XLSX 186 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (226 kb)
Supplementary table2 (S2): List of differentially expressed genes in everolimus treated HKCSC cells. (XLSX 225 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (1.6 mb)
Supplementary table 3 (S3): List of common differentially expressed genes in everolimus treated HPKCSC and HKCSC cells. (XLSX 1623 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (33 kb)
Supplementary table 4 (S4): List of GO terms in everolimus treated HPKCSC cells. (XLSX 32 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM5_ESM.xlsx (37 kb)
Supplementary table 5 (S5): List of GO terms in everolimus treated HKCSC cells. (XLSX 37 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM6_ESM.xlsx (11 kb)
Supplementary table 6 (S6): List of GO terms in common differentially altered genes between everolimus treated HPKCSC and HKCSC cells. (XLSX 10 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM7_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
Supplementary table 7 (S7): Pathways enrichment in everolimus treated HPKCSC cells. (XLSX 11 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM8_ESM.xlsx (14 kb)
Supplementary table 8 (S8): Pathways enrichment in everolimus treated HKCSC cells. (XLSX 13 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM9_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Supplementary table 9 (S9): Common pathways enriched between everolimus treated HPKCSC and HKCSC cells. (XLSX 12 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM10_ESM.xlsx (289 kb)
Supplementary table 10 (S10): List of differentially expressed genes in everolimus treated HPKCSC cells with statistical data. (XLSX 288 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM11_ESM.xlsx (652 kb)
Supplementary table 11(S11): List of differentially expressed genes in everolimus treated HKCSC cells with statistical data. (XLSX 652 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM12_ESM.pdf (40 kb)
Supplementary table 12 (S12) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in mTOR pathway in parental cell line. (PDF 39 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM13_ESM.pdf (34 kb)
Supplementary table 13 (S13) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in mTOR pathway in stem cells. (PDF 33 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM14_ESM.pdf (35 kb)
Supplementary table 14 (S14) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in hormonal pathways in parental cell line. (PDF 35 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM15_ESM.pdf (39 kb)
Supplementary table 15 (S15) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in hormonal pathways in stem cells. (PDF 39 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM16_ESM.pdf (36 kb)
Supplementary table 16 (S16) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in metabolic pathways in parental cell line. (PDF 35 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM17_ESM.pdf (33 kb)
Supplementary table 17 (S17) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in metabolic pathways in stem cells. (PDF 32 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM18_ESM.pdf (35 kb)
Supplementary table 18 (S18) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in angiogenic pathways in parental cell line. (PDF 35 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM19_ESM.pdf (33 kb)
Supplementary table 19 (S19) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in angiogenic pathways in stem cells. (PDF 33 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM20_ESM.pdf (33 kb)
Supplementary table 20 (S20) Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in calcium/bone metabolism pathways in parental cell line. (PDF 32 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM21_ESM.pdf (30 kb)
Supplementary table 21 (S21) Table 21. Effects of everolimus on expression of genes in calcium/bone metabolism pathways in stem cell line. (PDF 30 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM22_ESM.pdf (219 kb)
Figure S1. Effect of everolimus in 5 first subsequent days on a) primary tumor (786-O) b) lung metastases (ACHN). (PDF 218 KB)
12015_2018_9804_MOESM23_ESM.pdf (414 kb)
Figure S2. Effect of everolimus in 5 first subsequent days on a) clear cell carcinoma parental cell line (ccRCC-PCSC) b) papillary parental cell line (ppRCC-PCSC) c) cancer stem cells (CSC) d) healthy kidney (ASE). (PDF 413 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Department of OncologyMilitary Institute of MedicineWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Postgraduate School of Molecular MedicineWarsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of RNA Biology and Functional GenomicsWarsawPoland
  4. 4.Warsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland

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