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Stem Cell Reviews and Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 329–342 | Cite as

Exploring the Role of Soluble Factors Associated with Immune Regulatory Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  • Ênio José Bassi
  • Danilo Candido de Almeida
  • Pedro Manoel Mendes Moraes-Vieira
  • Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
Article

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are characterized as multipotent stromal cells with the capacity for both self-renewal and differentiation into mesodermal cell lineages. MSCs also have a fibroblast-like phenotype and can be isolated from several tissues. In recent years, researchers have found that MSCs secrete several soluble factors that exert immunosuppressive effects by modulating both innate (macrophages, dendritic and NK cells) and adaptive (B cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) immune responses. This review summarizes the principal trophic factors that are related to immune regulation and secreted by MSCs under both autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. The understanding of mechanisms that regulate immunity in MSCs field is important for their future use as a novel cellular-based immunotherapy with clinical applications in several diseases.

Keywords

Mesenchymal stem cells Immune regulation Immune system Soluble factors Immunotherapy Inflammation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by grants 08/55447-1, 09/51649-1, 10/12295-7, 10/16213-5 and 07/07139-3 from the State of Sao Paulo Foundation for Research Support (FAPESP), Brazilian Council of Scientific and Technologic Development (470533/2007-2, CNPq/DECIT/MS) and Complex Fluids INCT.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ênio José Bassi
    • 1
  • Danilo Candido de Almeida
    • 2
  • Pedro Manoel Mendes Moraes-Vieira
    • 1
  • Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Transplantation Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences IVUniversidade de São Paulo-USPSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Nephrology Division, Medicine DepartmentUniversidade Federal de São Paulo-UNIFESPSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences IVUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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