Stem Cell Reviews and Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 435–444 | Cite as

Autologous Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from Adult Mouse Testicular Biopsy

  • Kinarm Ko
  • Guangming Wu
  • Marcos J. Araúzo-Bravo
  • Julee Kim
  • Jury Francine
  • Boris Greber
  • Jörg Mühlisch
  • Jin Young Joo
  • Davood Sabour
  • Michael C. Frühwald
  • Natalia Tapia
  • Hans R. SchölerEmail author


Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of the male and female gametes. At 6.25 days post coitum (dpc), PGCs are specified in the proximal epiblast [21] and then migrate through the hindgut into the developing gonads [27]. At 12.5 dpc, most PGCs have reached the gonads; after colonizing the gonads, female germ cells enter meiosis whereas male germ cells undergo mitotic arrest [25]. However, under certain conditions, male germ cells continue proliferating and give rise to embryonal carcinoma cells (ECs). ECs were the first pluripotent stem cells to be isolated and could give rise to teratomas containing tissues from all three germ layers [37]. In addition, after being cultured in specific culture conditions, isolated PGCs can also be dedifferentiated into pluripotent cells in vitro, termed embryonic germ (EG) cells [33]. Thus, highly specialized cells, such as the germ cells, can spontaneously dedifferentiate to a pluripotent state both in vitro and in vivo.



Major Histocompatibility Complex Teratoma Pluripotent Cell Testicular Cell Oct4 Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Jeanine Müller-Keuker for helping to generate Supplementary Fig. 1 and Anna Niehues for providing technical assistance with the experiments. This work was supported by the Max Planck Society, DFG grant SPP 1356 entitled “Pluripotency and Cellular Reprogramming” (SCHO 340/5-1), and BMBF grant entitled “Disease-specific iPS cells” (FKZ 01GN0811).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary Figure 1 (PDF 3791 kb)
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Supplementary Figure 2 (PDF 12307 kb)
12015_2011_9307_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (467 kb)
Supplementary Figure 3 (PDF 467 kb)
12015_2011_9307_MOESM4_ESM.doc (34 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 (DOC 33.5 kb)
Supplementary Video 1

(MOV 2787 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kinarm Ko
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Guangming Wu
    • 1
  • Marcos J. Araúzo-Bravo
    • 1
  • Julee Kim
    • 1
  • Jury Francine
    • 4
  • Boris Greber
    • 1
  • Jörg Mühlisch
    • 5
  • Jin Young Joo
    • 1
  • Davood Sabour
    • 1
  • Michael C. Frühwald
    • 5
  • Natalia Tapia
    • 1
  • Hans R. Schöler
    • 1
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cell and Developmental BiologyMax Planck Institute for Molecular BiomedicineMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Center for Stem Cell Research, Institute of Biomedical Science and TechnologyKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Depatment of Neuroscience, School of MedicineKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research, School of MedicineUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  5. 5.Department of Pediatric Hematology and OncologyUniversity Children’s Hospital MünsterMünsterGermany
  6. 6.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany

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