Stem Cell Reviews and Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 269–291 | Cite as

The Potential of Adipose Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

  • Bettina LindroosEmail author
  • Riitta Suuronen
  • Susanna Miettinen


Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are an attractive and abundant stem cell source with therapeutic applicability in diverse fields for the repair and regeneration of acute and chronically damaged tissues. Importantly, unlike the human bone marrow stromal/stem stem cells (BMSCs) that are present at low frequency in the bone marrow, ASCs can be retrieved in high number from either liposuction aspirates or subcutaneous adipose tissue fragments and can easily be expanded in vitro. ASCs display properties similar to that observed in BMSCs and, upon induction, undergo at least osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic, differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, ASCs have been shown to be immunoprivileged, prevent severe graft-versus-host disease in vitro and in vivo and to be genetically stable in long-term culture. They have also proven applicability in other functions, such as providing hematopoietic support and gene transfer. Due to these characteristics, ASCs have rapidly advanced into clinical trials for treatment of a broad range of conditions. As cell therapies are becoming more frequent, clinical laboratories following good manufacturing practices are needed. At the same time as laboratory processes become more extensive, the need for control in the processing laboratory grows consequently involving a greater risk of complications and possibly adverse events for the recipient. Therefore, the safety, reproducibility and quality of the stem cells must thoroughly be examined prior to extensive use in clinical applications. In this review, some of the aspects of examination on ASCs in vitro and the utilization of ASCs in clinical studies are discussed.


Adipose stem cells Stem cell therapy Good manufacturing practice Defined serum-free culturing conditions Flow cytometry 



The author wishes to thank Prof. Jeffrey Gimble, Pennington Medical Research Center for the valuable comments on the manuscript. The work was supported by TEKES, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, the competitive research funding of the Pirkanmaa Hospital District, the Finnish Dental Society Apollonia, the City of Tampere, the Maud Kuistila Memorial Foundation and the Finnish Cultural Foundation Pirkanmaa Provincial Foundation.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bettina Lindroos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Riitta Suuronen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Susanna Miettinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Regea—Institute for Regenerative MedicineUniversity of Tampere and Tampere University HospitalTampereFinland
  2. 2.Department of Eye, Ear and Oral DiseasesTampere University HospitalTampereFinland
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical EngineeringTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland

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