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Stem Cell Reviews

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 27–49 | Cite as

Recent Progress on Tissue-Resident Adult Stem Cell Biology and Their Therapeutic Implications

  • Murielle Mimeault
  • Surinder K. Batra
Article

Abstract

Recent progress in the field of the stem cell research has given new hopes to treat and even cure diverse degenerative disorders and incurable diseases in human. Particularly, the identification of a rare population of adult stem cells in the most tissues/organs in human has emerged as an attractive source of multipotent stem/progenitor cells for cell replacement-based therapies and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. The tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells offer the possibility to stimulate their in vivo differentiation or to use their ex vivo expanded progenies for cell replacement-based therapies with multiple applications in human. Among the human diseases that could be treated by the stem cell-based therapies, there are hematopoietic and immune disorders, multiple degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzeimeher’s diseases, type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus as well as eye, liver, lung, skin and cardiovascular disorders and aggressive and metastatic cancers. In addition, the genetically-modified adult stem/progenitor cells could also be used as delivery system for expressing the therapeutic molecules in specific damaged areas of different tissues. Recent advances in cancer stem/progenitor cell research also offer the possibility to targeting these undifferentiated and malignant cells that provide critical functions in cancer initiation and progression and disease relapse for treating the patients diagnosed with the advanced and metastatic cancers which remain incurable in the clinics with the current therapies.

Keywords

Adult stem/progenitor cells Regenerative medicine Cancer stem/progenitor cells Targeted therapies Gene therapy 

Abbreviations

ABC

ATP-binding cassette

ADSCs

adipose tissue-derived stem cells

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

BM

bone marrow

BMP

bone morphogenic protein

CB

carotid body

CESCs

corneal epithelial stem cells

CE

ciliary epithelium

CNS

central nervous system

CSCs

cardiac stem/progenitor cells

CXCR4

CXC chemokine receptor-4

EGF

epidermal growth factor

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

EPCs

endothelial progenitor cells

ESCs

embryonic stem cells

FGF

fibroblast growth factor

hAECs

human amniotic epithelial cells

HGF

hepatocyte growth factor

HOV

hepatic oval cells

HSCs

hematopoietic stem cells

IGF

insulin-like growth factor

MDSCs

muscle-derived stem cells

MSCs

mesenchymal stem cells

NCSCs

neural crest stem cells

NSCs

neural stem cells

Oct-3/4

octamer-binding protein

PTCH

patched receptor

SDF-1

stromal cell-derived factor-1

TA

transit-amplifying

UC

umbilical cord

SHH

sonic hedgehog ligand

UCB

umbilical cord blood

PSCs

pancreatic stem cells

RSCs

retinal stem cells

SMCs

smooth-muscle cells

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

Wnt

Wingless ligand

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors on this manuscript are supported by the grants from the U.S. Department of Defense (PC04502, OC04110) and the National Institutes of Health (CA78590, CA111294). We thank Ms. Kristi L. Berger for editing the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and MicrobiologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  3. 3.Eppley Institute for Cancer and Allied DiseasesUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

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