Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 433–439 | Cite as

Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TFG-β) Concentration Isoforms are Diminished in Acute Coronary Syndrome

  • Jorge Ramón Padilla-Gutiérrez
  • Emmanuel Valdés-Alvarado
  • Saraí Citlalic Rodríguez-Reyes
  • Juan Arellano-Martin
  • Héctor Enrique Flores-Salinas
  • José Francisco Muñoz Valle
  • Yeminia Valle
Original Paper


Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is the leading cause of death in elderly patients worldwide. Due its participation in apoptosis, fibrosis, and angiogenesis, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms had been categorized as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. However, due their contradictory activities, a cardioprotective role has been suggested. The aim was to measure the plasma levels of TGF-β1, 2, and 3 proteins in patients with ACS. This was a case–control study including 225 subjects. The three activated isoforms were measured in serum using the Bio-Plex Pro TGF-β assay by means of magnetic beads; the fluorescence intensity of reporter signal was read in a Bio-Plex Magpix instrument. We observed a significant reduction of the three activated isoforms of TGF-β in patients with ACS. The three TGF-β isoforms were positively correlated with each other in moderate-to-strong manner. TGFβ-2 was inversely correlated with glucose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, whereas TGF-β3 was inversely correlated with the serum cholesterol concentration. The production of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 are decreased in the serum of patients with ACS. Further follow-up controlled studies with a larger sample size are needed, in order to test whether TGF-β isoforms could be useful as biomarkers that complement the diagnosis of ACS.


Acute coronary syndrome Protein isoforms Serum concentration TGF-β concentration Cardiac diseases 



The authors thank all of the participants in this study

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Ramón Padilla-Gutiérrez
    • 1
  • Emmanuel Valdés-Alvarado
    • 1
  • Saraí Citlalic Rodríguez-Reyes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Juan Arellano-Martin
    • 3
  • Héctor Enrique Flores-Salinas
    • 3
    • 4
  • José Francisco Muñoz Valle
    • 1
  • Yeminia Valle
    • 5
  1. 1.Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico
  2. 2.Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico
  3. 3.Especialidad en Cardiología IMSS, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la SaludGuadalajaraMexico
  4. 4.Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, Departamento de CardiologíaInstituto Mexicano del Seguro SocialGuadalajaraMexico
  5. 5.Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Biomédicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico

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