Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 72, Issue 3, pp 865–867 | Cite as

Myocardial Infarction: Symptoms and Treatments

  • Lei Lu
  • Min Liu
  • RongRong Sun
  • Yi Zheng
  • Peiying ZhangEmail author
Original Paper


Myocardial infarction (MI) is a term used for an event of heart attack which is due to formation of plaques in the interior walls of the arteries resulting in reduced blood flow to the heart and injuring heart muscles because of lack of oxygen supply. The symptoms of MI include chest pain, which travels from left arm to neck, shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, abnormal heart beating, anxiety, fatigue, weakness, stress, depression, and other factors. The immediate treatment of MI include, taking aspirin, which prevents blood from clotting, and nitro-glycerin to treat chest pain and oxygen. The heart attack can be prevented by taking an earlier action to lower those risks by controlling diet, fat, cholesterol, salt, smoking, nicotine, alcohol, drugs, monitoring of blood pressure every week, doing exercise every day, and loosing body weight. The treatment of MI includes, aspirin tablets, and to dissolve arterial blockage injection of thrombolytic or clot dissolving drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase or urokinase in blood within 3 h of the onset of a heart attack. The painkillers such as morphine or meperidine can be administered to relieve pain. Nitroglycerin and antihypertensive drugs such as beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors or calcium channel blockers may also be used to lower blood pressure and to improve the oxygen demand of heart. The ECG, coronary angiography and X-ray of heart and blood vessels can be performed to observe the narrowing of coronary arteries. In this article the causes, symptoms and treatments of MI are described.


Myocardial infarction Coronary angiography Antihypertensive drugs 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lei Lu
    • 1
  • Min Liu
    • 1
  • RongRong Sun
    • 1
  • Yi Zheng
    • 1
  • Peiying Zhang
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate SchoolNanjing University of Chinese MedicineNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyXuzhou Central HospitalXuzhouChina
  3. 3.Affiliated Xuzhou HospitalMedical School of Southeast UniversityXuzhouChina
  4. 4.Xuzhou Clinical Medical College of Nanjing University of Chinese MedicineXuzhouChina

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