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α-Mangostin Suppresses Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-Induced MMP-2/MMP-9 Expressions via αvβ3 Integrin/FAK/ERK and NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-metastatic effect of α-mangostin on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expressions in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Firstly, α-mangostin could inhibit PMA-induced abilities of the adhesion, invasion, and migration. Data also showed α-mangostin could inhibit the activation of αvβ3 integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) involved in the downregulation the enzyme activities, protein and messenger RNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 induced by PMA. Next, α-mangostin also strongly inhibited PMA-induced degradation of inhibitor of kappaBα (IκBα) and the nuclear levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Also, a dose-dependent inhibition on the binding abilities of NF-κB by α-mangostin treatment was further observed. Furthermore, reduction of FAK or ERK1/2 phosphorylation by FAK small interfering RNA (FAK siRNA) potentiated the effect of α-mangostin. Finally, the transient transfection of ERK siRNA significantly down-regulated the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 concomitantly with a marked inhibition on cell invasion and migration. Presented results indicated α-mangostin is a novel, effect, anti-metastatic agent that functions by downregulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expressions.

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Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate


Matrix metalloproteinases


Extracellular matrix


Extracellular signaling-regulating kinase


c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase

p38 MAPK:

p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B


Nuclear factor kappa B


Inhibitor of NF-κB


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Correspondence to Li-Te Yin.

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Shih, Y., Chien, S., Chen, P. et al. α-Mangostin Suppresses Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-Induced MMP-2/MMP-9 Expressions via αvβ3 Integrin/FAK/ERK and NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells. Cell Biochem Biophys 58, 31–44 (2010).

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  • α-Mangostin
  • PMA
  • Invasion
  • Migration
  • αvβ3 Integrin
  • FAK
  • ERK1/2
  • MMP-2
  • MMP-9