Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 54, Issue 1–3, pp 33–46 | Cite as

The R7 RGS Protein Family: Multi-Subunit Regulators of Neuronal G Protein Signaling

  • Garret R. Anderson
  • Ekaterina Posokhova
  • Kirill A. Martemyanov
Review

Abstract

G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways mediate the transmission of signals from the extracellular environment to the generation of cellular responses, a process that is critically important for neurons and neurotransmitter action. The ability to promptly respond to rapidly changing stimulation requires timely inactivation of G proteins, a process controlled by a family of specialized proteins known as regulators of G protein signaling (RGS). The R7 group of RGS proteins (R7 RGS) has received special attention due to their pivotal roles in the regulation of a range of crucial neuronal processes such as vision, motor control, reward behavior, and nociception in mammals. Four proteins in this group, RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11, share a common molecular organization of three modules: (i) the catalytic RGS domain, (ii) a GGL domain that recruits Gβ5, an outlying member of the G protein beta subunit family, and (iii) a DEP/DHEX domain that mediates interactions with the membrane anchor proteins R7BP and R9AP. As heterotrimeric complexes, R7 RGS proteins not only associate with and regulate a number of G protein signaling pathway components, but have also been found to form complexes with proteins that are not traditionally associated with G protein signaling. This review summarizes our current understanding of the biology of the R7 RGS complexes including their structure/functional organization, protein–protein interactions, and physiological roles.

Keywords

G protein signaling RGS proteins Neurons 

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garret R. Anderson
    • 1
  • Ekaterina Posokhova
    • 1
  • Kirill A. Martemyanov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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