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Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp 75–100 | Cite as

A Review of the Antioxidant Mechanisms of Polyphenol Compounds Related to Iron Binding

  • Nathan R. Perron
  • Julia L. Brumaghim
Review Paper

Abstract

In this review, primary attention is given to the antioxidant (and prooxidant) activity of polyphenols arising from their interactions with iron both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, an overview of oxidative stress and the Fenton reaction is provided, as well as a discussion of the chemistry of iron binding by catecholate, gallate, and semiquinone ligands along with their stability constants, UV–vis spectra, stoichiometries in solution as a function of pH, rates of iron oxidation by O2 upon polyphenol binding, and the published crystal structures for iron–polyphenol complexes. Radical scavenging mechanisms of polyphenols unrelated to iron binding, their interactions with copper, and the prooxidant activity of iron–polyphenol complexes are briefly discussed.

Keywords

Polyphenol antioxidants Iron binding Catecholate Gallate Flavonoids Catechins Tannins Proanthocyanidins EGCG Stability constant Autooxidation DNA damage Fenton reaction Cytotoxicity Cytoprotection Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s Blood and plasma Preservatives Radical scavenging Reactive oxygen species 

Abbreviations

Amyloid-beta

EC

(–)-Epicatechin

ECG

(–)-Epicatechin-3-gallate

EGC

(–)-Epigallocatechin

EGCG

(–)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

GA

Gallic acid

Q

Quercetin

MEGA

Gallic acid methyl ester

MEPCA

Protocatechuic acid methyl ester

PCA

Protocatechuic acid

PrEGA

Gallic acid propyl ester

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

Rut

Rutin

TA

Tannic acid

VA

Vanillic acid

EPR

Electron paramagnetic resonance

TEAC

Trolox-equivalent antioxidant activity

ORAC

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

DPPH

2,2-Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl

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© Humana Press Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryClemson UniversityClemsonUSA

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