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Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

, Volume 48, Issue 2–3, pp 103–113 | Cite as

Insulin signaling and glucose transport in insulin resistant human skeletal muscle

  • Håkan K. R. Karlsson
  • Juleen R. ZierathEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Insulin increases glucose uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle by signal transduction via protein phosphorylation cascades. Insulin action on signal transduction is impaired in skeletal muscle from Type 2 diabetic subjects, underscoring the contribution of molecular defects to the insulin resistant phenotype. This review summarizes recent work to identify downstream intermediates in the insulin signaling pathways governing glucose homeostasis, in an attempt to characterize the molecular mechanism accounting for skeletal muscle insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the effects of pharmaceutical treatment of Type 2 diabetic patients on insulin signaling and glucose uptake are discussed. The identification and characterization of pathways governing insulin action on glucose metabolism will facilitate the development of strategies to improve insulin sensitivity in an effort to prevent and treat Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords

Skeletal Muscle Insulin action Glucose metabolism Signal transduction Type 2 diabetes Drug therapy Thiazolidinedione Metformin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are supported by grants from the Swedish Medical Research Council, the Swedish Diabetes Association, Foundation for Scientific Studies of Diabetology, the Strategic Research Foundation (INGVAR), Novo-Nordisk Foundation, and the Commission of the European Communities (Network of Excellence EUGENE2; Contract No. LSHM-CT-2004-005272 and Integrated Project EXGENESIS; Contract No. LSHM-CT-2004-005272).

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Integrative PhysiologyKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

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