Pb, Cd, and Cu Play a Major Role in Health Risk from Contamination in Duck Meat and Offal for Food Production in Thailand

  • Paweena Aendo
  • Ramnaree Netvichian
  • Sutha Khaodhiar
  • Suporn Thongyuan
  • Thaweesak Songserm
  • Phitsanu TulayakulEmail author


Zinc, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, Cr, and Cu levels in duck meat from large-scale farms have been found to be significantly higher than those from free-grazing duck farms. Zinc, Co, Mn, Cr, and Cu contamination levels in duck liver from large-scale farms were significantly higher than those from free-grazing farms; only Cd in duck liver from free-grazing farms was higher than in liver samples from large-scale farms at P < 0.05. Lead, Cd, Fe, and Cr levels in duck intestine samples from free-grazing farms were higher than large-scale farms at P < 0.001. Moreover, the average concentrations of Pb in duck meat and liver samples from large-scale farms and Cd levels in duck liver samples from free-grazing farm also exceeded the FAO/WHO and Codex Alimentarius limits by 100% (55/55), 100% (54/54), and 67.6% (23/34), respectively. PCA analysis showed a strong positive relationship between the eight metals in meat, liver, and intestine was > 0.69, > 0.69, and > 0.72, in order. The relationship of the liver combined with the intestine was > 0.65. This study indicated that consumers may incur health risks from long-term consumption of duck due to high Pb and Cd concentrations from both types of farms, particularly from large-scale duck farms.


Meat Duck Heavy metals Offal Thailand 


Funding Information

This work was partially supported by the Center for Advanced Studies for Agriculture and Food, Institute for Advanced Studies, Kasetsart University under the Higher Education Research Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education, Thailand, “The Center for Advanced Studies for Agriculture and Food, KU Institute for Advanced Studies, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand” (CASAF, NRU-KU, Thailand), the Thailand Research Fund (TRF), RDG no. 5720053, and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

The protocol of laboratory animal uses has been approved by ethical committees of Kasetsart University.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Duck Health Science, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKasetsart University Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand

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