Advertisement

Cadmium in Groundwater Consumed in the Rural Areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, Iran: Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment

  • Mehdi Qasemi
  • Mahmoud Shams
  • Seyed Ali Sajjadi
  • Mansoureh Farhang
  • Saeed Erfanpoor
  • Mahmood Yousefi
  • Ahmad ZareiEmail author
  • Mojtaba AfsharniaEmail author
Article
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

Evidences show that high levels of cadmium intake may be contributing to a wide range of deleterious health effects. This study was performed to estimate the concentration of cadmium and the health risk to human by cadmium through the ingestion of groundwater in 39 rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, eastern Iran. The mean cadmium concentrations in groundwater in the studied rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan ranged from 0.087 to 14.32 μg/L and from 0.417 to 18.36 μg/L, respectively. Health risk quotient for cadmium contamination for 16 and 38% of children and infants in rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, respectively, was more than 1 which causes non-carcinogenic risk to the local population. The carcinogenic risk of cadmium in drinking water for adults, children, and infants in 16, 33, and 33% of studied rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, respectively, was higher than the safe limit of 1.0 × 10−4. For rural areas of Bajestan, the cancer risk in 42, 52, and 52% of adults, children, and infants was above the safe limit. It was strongly suggested that the accessible procedures of treatment should be taken for a portion of contaminated rural areas before the distribution of the groundwater for the local population.

Keywords

Cadmium Groundwater Health risk assessment Carcinogenic risk Non-carcinogenic risk 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Professor Mehdi Zarrei in the hospital for Sickkids in Toronto, Canada, for valuable comments and suggestions, allowing us to improve this paper.

References

  1. 1.
    Derakhshani E, Naghizadeh A, Yari AR, Mohammadi MJ, Kamranifar M, Farhang M (2017) Association of toxicochemical and microbiological quality of bottled mineral water in Birjand city, Iran. Toxin Rev 37(2):1–6Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shams M, Mohamadi A, Sajadi SA (2012) Evaluation of corrosion and scaling potential of water in rural water supply distribution networks of Tabas, Iran. World Appl Sci J 17(11):1484–1489Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moghaddam VK, Yousefi M, Khosravi A, Yaseri M, Mahvi AH, Hadei M, Mohammadi AA, Robati Z, Mokammel A (2018) High concentration of fluoride can be increased risk of abortion. Biol Trace Elem Res 185(2):262–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dehghani MH, Nikfar E, Zarei A, Esfahani NM (2017) The effects of US/H2O2 processes on bisphenol-a toxicity in aqueous solutions using Daphnia magnad. Desalin Water Treat 68:183–189Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang X, Tian J (2004) Health risks related to residential exposure to cadmium in Zhenhe County, China. Arch Environ Health 59(6):324–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Esmaeilzadeh M, Jaafari J, Mohammadi AA, Panahandeh M, Javid A, Javan S (2018) Investigation of the extent of contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soil using statistical analyses and contamination indices. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 24:1–12Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Faiz Y, Tufail M, Javed MT, Chaudhry M (2009) Road dust pollution of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn along Islamabad Expressway, Pakistan. Microchem J 92(2):186–192Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Qasemi M, Zarei A, Afsharnia M, Salehi R, Allahdadi M, Farhang M (2018) Data on cadmium removal from synthetic aqueous solution using garbage ash. Data Brief 20:1115–1123PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Organization WHO (2010) Ten chemicals of major public health concern. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public-health/chemicals-phc/en/
  10. 10.
    Li J-T, Baker AJ, Ye Z-H, Wang H-B, Shu W-S (2012) Phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils: current status and future challenges. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 42(20):2113–2152PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dehghani MH, Tajik S, Panahi A, Khezri M, Zarei A, Heidarinejad Z, Yousefi M (2018) Adsorptive removal of noxious cadmium from aqueous solutions using poly urea-formaldehyde: a novel polymer adsorbent. MethodsX 5:1148–1155PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mohammadi AA, Yousefi M, Soltani J, Ahangar AG, Javan S (2018) Using the combined model of gamma test and neuro-fuzzy system for modeling and estimating lead bonds in reservoir sediments. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(30):30315–30324Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burke F, Hamza S, Naseem S, Nawaz-ul-Huda S, Azam M, Khan I (2016) Impact of cadmium polluted groundwater on human health: winder, Balochistan. SAGE Open 6(1):2158244016634409Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rapant S, Cvečková V, Dietzová Z, Fajčíková K, Hiller E, Finkelman R, Škultétyová S (2014) The potential impact of geological environment on health status of residents of the Slovak Republic. Environ Geochem Health 36(3):543–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ryan PB, Huet N, MacIntosh DL (2000) Longitudinal investigation of exposure to arsenic, cadmium, and lead in drinking water. Environ Health Perspect 108(8):731–735PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vromman V, Waegeneers N, Cornelis C, De Boosere I, Van Holderbeke M, Vinkx C, Smolders E, Huyghebaert A, Pussemier L (2010) Dietary cadmium intake by the Belgian adult population. Food Addit Contam Part A 27(12):1665–1673Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) (2016) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volumes 1–115. https://monographs.iarc.fr/
  18. 18.
    USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (2014) USEPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) online database. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/iris. Accessed: Nov. 2015
  19. 19.
    WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: recommendations. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang Y, Liu P, Jin Y, Wang C, Min J, Wu Y (2016) Dietary exposure and risk assessment to cadmium of the adult population of Jiangsu province, China: comparing between semi-probabilistic and fully probabilistic approaches. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 22(1):226–240Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marchwinska-Wyrwal E, Dziubanek G, Skrzypek M, Hajok I (2010) Study of the health effects of long-term exposure to cadmium and lead in a region of Poland. Int J Environ Health Res 20(2):81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ikeda M, Ezaki T, Tsukahara T, Moriguchi J (2004) Dietary cadmium intake in polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan in the past and in the present. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 77(4):227–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nawrot TS, Staessen JA, Roels HA, Munters E, Cuypers A, Richart T, Ruttens A, Smeets K, Clijsters H, Vangronsveld J (2010) Cadmium exposure in the population: from health risks to strategies of prevention. Biometals 23(5):769–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Amiri A, Mirhosseini Z (2015) Cadmium contamination of drinking water and its treatment using biological chelators. J Occup Health Epidemiol 4(4):223–228Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Khoramnejadian S, Fatemi F (2017) Determination of lead and cadmium in the water of the damavand river, Iran. Appl Ecol Environ Res 15(1):439–444Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ghaderpoori M, Jafari A, Ghaderpoury A (2018) Heavy metals analysis and quality assessment in drinking water–Khorramabad city, Iran. Data Brief 16:685–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mirzabeygi M, Abbasnia A, Yunesian M, Nodehi RN, Yousefi N, Hadi M, Mahvi AH (2017) Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in drinking water of Sistan and Baluchistan, Southeastern Iran. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 23(8):1893–1905Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Iqbal J, Tirmizi SA, Shah MH (2012) Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment and source apportionment of selected metals in source freshwater Khanpur Lake, Pakistan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88(2):177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saleh HN, Panahande M, Yousefi M, Asghari FB, Conti GO, Talaee E, Mohammadi AA (2018) Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment of heavy metals in groundwater wells in Neyshabur Plain, Iran. Biol Trace Elem Res 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1516-6
  30. 30.
    Sousa AS, Duaví WC, Cavalcante RM, Milhome MAL, do Nascimento RF (2016) Estimated levels of environmental contamination and health risk assessment for herbicides and insecticides in surface water of Ceará, Brazil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96(1):90–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Qasemi M, Afsharnia M, Zarei A, Farhang M, Allahdadi M (2018) Non-carcinogenic risk assessment to human health due to intake of fluoride in the groundwater in rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, Iran: a case study. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 24:1–12Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wei B, Jiang F, Li X, Mu S (2009) Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban road dusts from Urumqi, NW China. Microchem J 93(2):147–152Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mirzabeygi M, Yousefi M, Soleimani H, Mohammadi AA, Mahvi AH, Abbasnia A (2018) The concentration data of fluoride and health risk assessment in drinking water in the Ardakan city of Yazd province, Iran. Data Brief 18:40–46Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ghaderpoori M, Paydar M, Zarei A, Alidadi H, Najafpoor AA, Gohary AH, Shams M (2018) Health risk assessment of fluoride in water distribution network of Mashhad, Iran. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 24:1–12Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Qasemi MAM, Farhang M, Bakhshizadeh A, Allahdadi M, Zarei A (2018) Health risk assessment of nitrate exposure in groundwater of rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, Iran. Environ Earth Sci 77:551Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Singh AK, Srivastava SC, Ansari A, Kumar D, Singh R (2012) Environmental monitoring and health risk assessment of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) cultured in rural ponds, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89(6):1142–1147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schwarz MA, Lindtner O, Blume K, Heinemeyer G, Schneider K (2014) Cadmium exposure from food: the German LExUKon project. Food Addit Contam Part A 31(6):1038–1051Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Qasemi M, Zarei A, Farhang M, Allahdadi M (2018) Manuscript title: non-carcinogenic risk assessment to human health due to intake of fluoride in the groundwater in rural areas of Gonabad and Bajestan, Iran: a case study. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 24(3):1–12Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wu T, Li X, Yang T, Sun X, Mielke HW, Cai Y, Ai Y, Zhao Y, Liu D, Zhang X (2017) Multi-elements in source water (drinking and surface water) within five cities from the semi-arid and arid region, NW China: occurrence, spatial distribution and risk assessment. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(10):1168PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Naveedullah MZH, Yu C, Shen H, Duan D, Shen C, Lou L, Chen Y (2014) Concentrations and human health risk assessment of selected heavy metals in surface water of the siling reservoir watershed in Zhejiang province, China. Pol J Environ Stud 23(3):801–811Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Edokpayi JN, Enitan AM, Mutileni N, Odiyo JO (2018) Evaluation of water quality and human risk assessment due to heavy metals in groundwater around Muledane area of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Chem Central J 12(1):2Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Al-Saleh I, Nester M, Devol E, Shinwari N, Al-Shahria S (1999) Determinants of blood lead levels in Saudi Arabian schoolgirls. Int J Occup Environ Health 5(2):107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pan L, Ma J, Hu Y, Su B, Fang G, Wang Y, Wang Z, Wang L, Xiang B (2016) Assessments of levels, potential ecological risk, and human health risk of heavy metals in the soils from a typical county in Shanxi Province, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(19):19330–19340Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang Z, Chai L, Wang Y, Yang Z, Wang H, Wu X (2011) Potential health risk of arsenic and cadmium in groundwater near Xiangjiang River, China: a case study for risk assessment and management of toxic substances. Environ Monit Assess 175(1–4):167–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Means B (1989) Risk-assessment guidance for Superfund. Volume 1. Human health evaluation manual. Part A. Interim report (Final). Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Solid Waste and Emergency ResponseGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Miri M, Akbari E, Amrane A, Jafari SJ, Eslami H, Hoseinzadeh E, Zarrabi M, Salimi J, Sayyad-Arbabi M, Taghavi M (2017) Health risk assessment of heavy metal intake due to fish consumption in the Sistan region, Iran. Environ Monit Assess 189(11):583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ni F, Liu G, Ren H, Yang S, Ye J, Lu X, Yang M (2009) Health risk assessment on rural drinking water safety. J Water Resour Prot 2:128–135Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shi P, Xiao J, Wang Y, Chen L (2014) Assessment of ecological and human health risks of heavy metal contamination in agriculture soils disturbed by pipeline construction. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(3):2504–2520PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Abdo KSA, Abdulla H (2013) Effect of cadmium in drinking water on growth, some hematological and biochemical parameters of chicken. Eur J Exp Biol 3(5):287–291Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Karim Z, Qureshi BA (2014) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban soil of Karachi, Pakistan. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 20(3):658–667Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bade R, Oh S, Shin WS, Hwang I (2013) Human health risk assessment of soils contaminated with metal (loid) s by using DGT uptake: a case study of a former Korean metal refinery site. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 19(3):767–777Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Youness ER, Mohammed NA, Morsy FA (2012) Cadmium impact and osteoporosis: mechanism of action. Toxicol Mech Methods 22(7):560–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Giri S, Singh AK (2015) Human health risk assessment via drinking water pathway due to metal contamination in the groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin, India. Environ Monit Assess 187(3):63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    WHO (2006) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: recommendations. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pawełczyk A (2013) Assessment of health risk associated with persistent organic pollutants in water. Environ Monit Assess 185(1):497–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tepanosyan G, Maghakyan N, Sahakyan L, Saghatelyan A (2017) Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 142:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yadolah Fakhri GL, Jafarzadeh S, Moradi B, Zandsalimi Y, amirhajeloo L r, Rafieepour A, Mirzaei M (2015) Assessment of risk human health induce to chrome, nickel, lead and cadmium of the tap water; Jask City, Iran. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 4(3):1009–1017Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vetrimurugan E, Brindha K, Elango L, Ndwandwe OM (2017) Human exposure risk to heavy metals through groundwater used for drinking in an intensively irrigated river delta. Appl Water Sci 7(6):3267–3280Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Boateng TK, Opoku F, Acquaah SO, Akoto O (2015) Pollution evaluation, sources and risk assessment of heavy metals in hand-dug wells from Ejisu-Juaben Municipality, Ghana. Environ Syst Res 4(1):18Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wongsasuluk P, Chotpantarat S, Siriwong W, Robson M (2014) Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. Environ Geochem Health 36(1):169–182PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Qasemi
    • 1
  • Mahmoud Shams
    • 2
  • Seyed Ali Sajjadi
    • 1
  • Mansoureh Farhang
    • 1
  • Saeed Erfanpoor
    • 3
  • Mahmood Yousefi
    • 4
  • Ahmad Zarei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mojtaba Afsharnia
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Social Development and Health Promotion Research CenterGonabad University of Medical SciencesGonabadIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of HealthMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of MedicineGonabad University of Medical SciencesGonabadIran
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations