Rapid and Facile Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Properties and Cytotoxic Effects Against Fibroblast-Like (HSkMC) and Human Lung Carcinoma (A549) Cell Lines

  • Atefeh Ameri
  • Mojtaba ShakibaieEmail author
  • Hamid-Reza Rahimi
  • Mahboubeh Adeli-Sardou
  • Mahsa Raeisi
  • Amir Najafi
  • Hamid Forootanfar


We report here a simple microwave irradiation method (850 W, 3 min) for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using ascorbic acid (as reducing agent) and sodium alginate (as stabilizer agent). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects of as-synthesized Pd NPs and Pd (II) acetate were also assessed. UV-Vis study showed the formation of Pd NPs with maximum absorption at 345 nm. From TEM analysis, it was observed that the Pd NPs had spherical shape with particle size distribution of 13–33 nm. Based on DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay, the antioxidant activities of Pd NPs were significantly higher than the Pd (II) acetate (p < 0.05). At the same concentration of 640 μg/mL, the scavenging activities were 32.9 ± 3.2% (Pd (II) acetate) and 27.2 ± 2.1% (Pd NPs). For A549 cells treated 48 h with Pd NPs, Pd (II) acetate, and cisplatin, the measured concentration necessary causing 50% cell death (IC50) was 7.2 ± 1.7 μg/mL, 32.1 ± 2.1 μg/mL, and 206.2 ± 3.5 μg/mL, respectively. On HSkMC cells, the IC50 of the Pd NPs (320 μg/mL) was higher compared to Pd (II) acetate (228.7 ± 3.6 μg/mL), which confirmed lower cytotoxicity of the Pd NPs.


Microwave irradiation Palladium nanoparticles Antioxidant Cytotoxicity 



We thank the Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences (Kerman, Iran) for its admirable participation in this study.


This work was supported by National Institute for Medical Research Development of Iran (NIMAD, 982600).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of NeuropharmacologyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  2. 2.Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research CenterKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of PharmacyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  4. 4.Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research CenterKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  5. 5.The Student Research Committee, Faculty of PharmacyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  6. 6.Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of PharmacyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran

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