Advertisement

Rapid and Facile Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Properties and Cytotoxic Effects Against Fibroblast-Like (HSkMC) and Human Lung Carcinoma (A549) Cell Lines

  • Atefeh Ameri
  • Mojtaba ShakibaieEmail author
  • Hamid-Reza Rahimi
  • Mahboubeh Adeli-Sardou
  • Mahsa Raeisi
  • Amir Najafi
  • Hamid Forootanfar
Article
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

We report here a simple microwave irradiation method (850 W, 3 min) for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using ascorbic acid (as reducing agent) and sodium alginate (as stabilizer agent). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects of as-synthesized Pd NPs and Pd (II) acetate were also assessed. UV-Vis study showed the formation of Pd NPs with maximum absorption at 345 nm. From TEM analysis, it was observed that the Pd NPs had spherical shape with particle size distribution of 13–33 nm. Based on DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay, the antioxidant activities of Pd NPs were significantly higher than the Pd (II) acetate (p < 0.05). At the same concentration of 640 μg/mL, the scavenging activities were 32.9 ± 3.2% (Pd (II) acetate) and 27.2 ± 2.1% (Pd NPs). For A549 cells treated 48 h with Pd NPs, Pd (II) acetate, and cisplatin, the measured concentration necessary causing 50% cell death (IC50) was 7.2 ± 1.7 μg/mL, 32.1 ± 2.1 μg/mL, and 206.2 ± 3.5 μg/mL, respectively. On HSkMC cells, the IC50 of the Pd NPs (320 μg/mL) was higher compared to Pd (II) acetate (228.7 ± 3.6 μg/mL), which confirmed lower cytotoxicity of the Pd NPs.

Keywords

Microwave irradiation Palladium nanoparticles Antioxidant Cytotoxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences (Kerman, Iran) for its admirable participation in this study.

Funding

This work was supported by National Institute for Medical Research Development of Iran (NIMAD, 982600).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Lai H, Xu F, Wang L (2018) A review of the preparation and application of magnetic nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. J Mater Sci 53:1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-018-2095-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Salari Z, Ameri A, Forootanfar H, Adeli-Sardou M, Jafari M, Mehrabani M, Shakibaie M (2017) Microwave-assisted biosynthesis of zinc nanoparticles and their cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. J Trace Elem Med Biol 39:116–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.09.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Corte S, Hennebel T, De Gusseme B, Verstraete W, Boon N (2012) Bio-palladium: from metal recovery to catalytic applications. Microb Biotechnol 5(1):5–17.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7915.2011.00265.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anand K, Tiloke C, Phulukdaree A, Ranjan B, Chuturgoon A, Singh S, Gengan RM (2016) Biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles by using Moringa oleifera flower extract and their catalytic and biological properties. J Photochem Photobiol B 165:87–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.09.039 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Momeni S, Nabipour I (2015) A simple green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with Sargassum alga and their electrocatalytic activities towards hydrogen peroxide. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 176(7):1937–1949.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-015-1690-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rastogi PK, Ganesan V, Krishnamoorthi S (2014) Palladium nanoparticles decorated gaur gum based hybrid material for electrocatalytic hydrazine determination. Electrochim Acta 125:593–600.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2014.01.148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Riddin T, Gericke M, Whiteley C (2010) Biological synthesis of platinum nanoparticles: effect of initial metal concentration. Enzyme Microb Technol 46(6):501–505.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2010.02.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Al-Nuairi AG, Mosa KA, Mohammad MG, El-Keblawy A, Soliman S, Alawadhi H (2019) Biosynthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles from Cyperus conglomeratus root extracts on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Biol Trace Elem Res:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01791-7
  9. 9.
    Ghosh S, Nitnavare R, Dewle A, Tomar GB, Chippalkatti R, More P, Kitture R, Kale S, Bellare J, Chopade BA (2015) Novel platinum–palladium bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by Dioscorea bulbifera: anticancer and antioxidant activities. Int J Nanomedicine 10:7477–7490.  https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S91579 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shavel A, Cadavid D, Ibanez M, Carrete A, Cabot A (2012) Continuous production of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals in a flow reactor. J Am Chem Soc 134(3):1438–1441.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja209688a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karmous I, Pandey A, Haj KB, Chaoui A (2019) Efficiency of the green synthesized nanoparticles as new tools in cancer therapy: insights on plant-based bioengineered nanoparticles, biophysical properties, and anticancer roles. Biol Trace Elem Res:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01895-0
  12. 12.
    Yu D, Bai J, Wang J, Liang H, Li C (2017) Assembling formation of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles supported 1D carbon fiber electrospun with excellent catalytic active and recyclable performance for Suzuki reaction. Appl Surf Sci 399:185–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.12.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lebaschi S, Hekmati M, Veisi H (2017) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles mediated by black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) extract: Catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction under ligand-free conditions. J Colloid Interface Sci 485:223–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.09.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li Y, Dai Y, Yang Z, Li T (2014) Controllable synthesis of palladium nanoparticles and their catalytic abilities in Heck and Suzuki reactions. Inorganica Chim Acta 414:59–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2014.01.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tahir K, Nazir S, Li B, Ahmad A, Nasir T, Khan AU, Shah SAA, Khan ZUH, Yasin G, Hameed MU (2016) Sapium sebiferum leaf extract mediated synthesis of palladium nanoparticles and in vitro investigation of their bacterial and photocatalytic activities. J Photochem Photobiol B 164:164–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.09.030 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sorinezami Z, Mansouri-Torshizi H, Ghanbari B (2017) Synthesis of PdO nanoparticles: Crystal structure, DNA binding, and cytotoxicity of a new hydroxyl-quinolinato-palladium complex. Inorg Nano-Metal Chem 47(4):500–508.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15533174.2016.1186079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martins M, Mourato C, Sanches S, Noronha JP, Crespo MB, Pereira IA (2017) Biogenic platinum and palladium nanoparticles as new catalysts for the removal of pharmaceutical compounds. Water Res 108:160–168.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.10.071 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Phan TTV, Hoang G, Nguyen TP, Kim HH, Mondal S, Manivasagan P, Moorthy MS, Lee KD, Junghwan O (2019) Chitosan as a stabilizer and size-control agent for synthesis of porous flower-shaped palladium nanoparticles and their applications on photo-based therapies. Carbohydr Polym 205:340–352.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.10.062 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bharathiraja S, Bui NQ, Manivasagan P, Moorthy MS, Mondal S, Seo H, Phuoc NT, Phan TTV, Kim H, Lee KD (2018) Multimodal tumor-homing chitosan oligosaccharide-coated biocompatible palladium nanoparticles for photo-based imaging and therapy. Sci Rep 8(1):500.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18966-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Statista (2019) Number of cancer deaths worldwide in 2018, by major type of cancer. https://www.statista.com/statistics/288580/number-of-cancer-deaths-worldwide-by-type/ Accessed 4 November 2019.
  21. 21.
    Statista (2019) Number of cancer deaths among males worldwide in 2018, by type of cancer. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1031228/number-of-cancer-deaths-males-worldwide-by-type/ Accessed 4 November 2019.
  22. 22.
    Khazaei S, Mansori K, Soheylizad M, Gholamaliee B, Khosravi Shadmani F, Khazaei Z, Ayubi E (2017) Epidemiology of lung cancer in Iran: sex difference and geographical distribution. Middle East J Cancer 8(4):223–228Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gurunathan S, Kim E, Han J, Park J, Kim J-H (2015) Green chemistry approach for synthesis of effective anticancer palladium nanoparticles. Molecules 20(12):22476–22498.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219860 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Elhusseiny AF, Hassan HH (2013) Antimicrobial and antitumor activity of platinum and palladium complexes of novel spherical aramides nanoparticles containing flexibilizing linkages: Structure–property relationship. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol. Spectrosc 103:232–245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.10.063 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Saldan I, Semenyuk Y, Marchuk I, Reshetnyak O (2015) Chemical synthesis and application of palladium nanoparticles. J Mater Sci 50(6):2337–2354.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-014-8802-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dinesh M, Roopan SM, Selvaraj CI, Arunachalam P (2017) Phyllanthus emblica seed extract mediated synthesis of PdNPs against antibacterial, heamolytic and cytotoxic studies. J Photochem Photobiol B 167:64–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.12.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kora AJ, Rastogi L (2015) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia) and its application as an antioxidant and catalyst. Arab J Chem 11:1097–1106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.06.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nasrollahzadeh M, Sajadi SM, Maham M (2015) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaf extract and their catalytic activity for the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling in water. J Mol Catal A Chem 396:297–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2014.10.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Basavegowda N, Mishra K, Lee YR, Kim SH (2016) Antioxidant and Anti-tyrosinase Activities of Palladium Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Saururus chinensis. J Clust Sci 27(2):733–744.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10876-016-0984-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nemamcha A, Rehspringer J-L, Khatmi D (2006) Synthesis of palladium nanoparticles by sonochemical reduction of palladium (II) nitrate in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem B 110(1):383–387.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0535801 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2016) Green synthesis, characterization and uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles. Nanoscale Res Lett 11(1):482.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-016-1695-z CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arsiya F, Sayadi MH, Sobhani S (2017) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using Chlorella vulgaris. Mater Lett 186:113–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2016.09.101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pal A, Shah S, Devi S (2009) Microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanol as a reducing agent. Mater Chem Phys 114(2-3):530–532.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2008.11.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang B, Zhuang X, Deng W, Cheng B (2010) Microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles in alkalic carboxymethyl chitosan solution. Engineering 2(05):387.  https://doi.org/10.4236/eng.2010.25050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jamkhande PG, Ghule NW, Bamer AH, Kalaskar MG (2019) Metal nanoparticles synthesis: An overview on methods of preparation, advantages and disadvantages, and applications. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 53:101174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2019.101174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Madhavan V, Gangadharan PK, Ajayan A, Chandran S, Raveendran P (2019) Microwave-assisted solid-state synthesis of Au nanoparticles, size-selective speciation, and their self-assembly into 2D-superlattice. Nano-struct Nano-Obj 17:218–222.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoso.2019.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pauzi N, Zain NM, Yusof NAA (2019) Microwave-assisted synthesis for environmentally ZnO nanoparticle synthesis. In: Proceedings of the 10th National Technical Seminar on Underwater System Technology 2018. Springer, pp 541–546Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nethravathi C, Rajamathi JT, Rajamathi M (2019) Microwave-assisted synthesis of porous aggregates of CuS nanoparticles for sunlight photocatalysis. ACS Omega 4(3):4825–4831.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b03288 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Forootanfar H, Adeli-Sardou M, Nikkhoo M, Mehrabani M, Amir-Heidari B, Shahverdi AR, Shakibaie M (2014) Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles in comparison to selenium dioxide. J Trace Elem Med Biol 28(1):75–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2013.07.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction. Jpn. J. Nutr 44(6)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kalaiselvi A, Roopan SM, Madhumitha G, Ramalingam C, Elango G (2015) Synthesis and characterization of palladium nanoparticles using Catharanthus roseus leaf extract and its application in the photo-catalytic degradation. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol. Spectrosc 135:116–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.07.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jia L, Zhang Q, Li Q, Song H (2009) The biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles by antioxidants in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis: long lifetime nanocatalysts for p-nitrotoluene hydrogenation. Nanotechnology 20(38):385601.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/20/38/385601 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Roopan SM, Bharathi A, Kumar R, Khanna VG, Prabhakarn A (2012) Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of aqueous extract of Annona squamosa L peel as biomaterial for the reduction of palladium salts into nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 92:209–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2011.11.044 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ogi T, Honda R, Tamaoki K, Saitoh N, Konishi Y (2011) Direct room-temperature synthesis of a highly dispersed Pd nanoparticle catalyst and its electrical properties in a fuel cell. Powder Technol 205(1-3):143–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2010.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tuo Y, Liu G, Zhou J, Wang A, Wang J, Jin R, Lv H (2013) Microbial formation of palladium nanoparticles by Geobacter sulfurreducens for chromate reduction. Bioresour Technol 133:606–611.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.02.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Roucoux A, Schulz J, Patin H (2002) Reduced transition metal colloids: a novel family of reusable catalysts? Chem Rev 102(10):3757–3778.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr010350j CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bharti N, Sharma S, Naqvi F, Azam A (2003) New palladium (II) complexes of 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazones: synthesis, spectral studies and in vitro anti-amoebic activity. Bioorg Med Chem 11(13):2923-2929.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-0896(03)00213-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tajima K, Watabe R, Kanaori K (2005) Antioxidant activity of PAPLAL a colloidal mixture of Pt and Pd metal to superoxide anion radical as studied by quantitative spin trapping ESR measurements. Clin Pharmacol Ther 15:635–642Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shibuya S, Ozawa Y, Watanabe K, Izuo N, Toda T, Yokote K, Shimizu T (2014) Palladium and platinum nanoparticles attenuate aging-like skin atrophy via antioxidant activity in mice. PloS one 9(10):e109288.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109288 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Okamoto H, Horii K, Fujisawa A, Yamamoto Y (2012) Oxidative deterioration of platinum nanoparticle and its prevention by palladium. Exp Dermatol 21:5–7.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01494.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schmid M, Zimmermann S, Krug HF, Sures B (2007) Influence of platinum, palladium and rhodium as compared with cadmium, nickel and chromium on cell viability and oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells. Environ Int 33(3):385–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2006.12.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Petrarca C, Clemente E, Di Giampaolo L, Mariani-Costantini R, Leopold K, Schindl R, Lotti LV, Mangifesta R, Sabbioni E, Niu Q (2014) Palladium nanoparticles induce disturbances in cell cycle entry and progression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells: paramount role of ions. J Immunol Res 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/295092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of NeuropharmacologyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  2. 2.Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research CenterKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of PharmacyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  4. 4.Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research CenterKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  5. 5.The Student Research Committee, Faculty of PharmacyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran
  6. 6.Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of PharmacyKerman University of Medical SciencesKermanIran

Personalised recommendations