Rapid and Facile Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Properties and Cytotoxic Effects Against Fibroblast-Like (HSkMC) and Human Lung Carcinoma (A549) Cell Lines
- 30 Downloads
We report here a simple microwave irradiation method (850 W, 3 min) for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using ascorbic acid (as reducing agent) and sodium alginate (as stabilizer agent). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Antioxidant properties and cytotoxic effects of as-synthesized Pd NPs and Pd (II) acetate were also assessed. UV-Vis study showed the formation of Pd NPs with maximum absorption at 345 nm. From TEM analysis, it was observed that the Pd NPs had spherical shape with particle size distribution of 13–33 nm. Based on DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay, the antioxidant activities of Pd NPs were significantly higher than the Pd (II) acetate (p < 0.05). At the same concentration of 640 μg/mL, the scavenging activities were 32.9 ± 3.2% (Pd (II) acetate) and 27.2 ± 2.1% (Pd NPs). For A549 cells treated 48 h with Pd NPs, Pd (II) acetate, and cisplatin, the measured concentration necessary causing 50% cell death (IC50) was 7.2 ± 1.7 μg/mL, 32.1 ± 2.1 μg/mL, and 206.2 ± 3.5 μg/mL, respectively. On HSkMC cells, the IC50 of the Pd NPs (320 μg/mL) was higher compared to Pd (II) acetate (228.7 ± 3.6 μg/mL), which confirmed lower cytotoxicity of the Pd NPs.
KeywordsMicrowave irradiation Palladium nanoparticles Antioxidant Cytotoxicity
We thank the Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences (Kerman, Iran) for its admirable participation in this study.
This work was supported by National Institute for Medical Research Development of Iran (NIMAD, 982600).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Anand K, Tiloke C, Phulukdaree A, Ranjan B, Chuturgoon A, Singh S, Gengan RM (2016) Biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles by using Moringa oleifera flower extract and their catalytic and biological properties. J Photochem Photobiol B 165:87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.09.039 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Al-Nuairi AG, Mosa KA, Mohammad MG, El-Keblawy A, Soliman S, Alawadhi H (2019) Biosynthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles from Cyperus conglomeratus root extracts on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Biol Trace Elem Res:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01791-7
- 9.Ghosh S, Nitnavare R, Dewle A, Tomar GB, Chippalkatti R, More P, Kitture R, Kale S, Bellare J, Chopade BA (2015) Novel platinum–palladium bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by Dioscorea bulbifera: anticancer and antioxidant activities. Int J Nanomedicine 10:7477–7490. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S91579 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 11.Karmous I, Pandey A, Haj KB, Chaoui A (2019) Efficiency of the green synthesized nanoparticles as new tools in cancer therapy: insights on plant-based bioengineered nanoparticles, biophysical properties, and anticancer roles. Biol Trace Elem Res:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01895-0
- 12.Yu D, Bai J, Wang J, Liang H, Li C (2017) Assembling formation of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles supported 1D carbon fiber electrospun with excellent catalytic active and recyclable performance for Suzuki reaction. Appl Surf Sci 399:185–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.12.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Lebaschi S, Hekmati M, Veisi H (2017) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles mediated by black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) extract: Catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction under ligand-free conditions. J Colloid Interface Sci 485:223–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.09.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Tahir K, Nazir S, Li B, Ahmad A, Nasir T, Khan AU, Shah SAA, Khan ZUH, Yasin G, Hameed MU (2016) Sapium sebiferum leaf extract mediated synthesis of palladium nanoparticles and in vitro investigation of their bacterial and photocatalytic activities. J Photochem Photobiol B 164:164–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.09.030 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Phan TTV, Hoang G, Nguyen TP, Kim HH, Mondal S, Manivasagan P, Moorthy MS, Lee KD, Junghwan O (2019) Chitosan as a stabilizer and size-control agent for synthesis of porous flower-shaped palladium nanoparticles and their applications on photo-based therapies. Carbohydr Polym 205:340–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.10.062 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Bharathiraja S, Bui NQ, Manivasagan P, Moorthy MS, Mondal S, Seo H, Phuoc NT, Phan TTV, Kim H, Lee KD (2018) Multimodal tumor-homing chitosan oligosaccharide-coated biocompatible palladium nanoparticles for photo-based imaging and therapy. Sci Rep 8(1):500. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18966-8 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.Statista (2019) Number of cancer deaths worldwide in 2018, by major type of cancer. https://www.statista.com/statistics/288580/number-of-cancer-deaths-worldwide-by-type/ Accessed 4 November 2019.
- 21.Statista (2019) Number of cancer deaths among males worldwide in 2018, by type of cancer. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1031228/number-of-cancer-deaths-males-worldwide-by-type/ Accessed 4 November 2019.
- 22.Khazaei S, Mansori K, Soheylizad M, Gholamaliee B, Khosravi Shadmani F, Khazaei Z, Ayubi E (2017) Epidemiology of lung cancer in Iran: sex difference and geographical distribution. Middle East J Cancer 8(4):223–228Google Scholar
- 24.Elhusseiny AF, Hassan HH (2013) Antimicrobial and antitumor activity of platinum and palladium complexes of novel spherical aramides nanoparticles containing flexibilizing linkages: Structure–property relationship. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol. Spectrosc 103:232–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.10.063 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Nasrollahzadeh M, Sajadi SM, Maham M (2015) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaf extract and their catalytic activity for the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling in water. J Mol Catal A Chem 396:297–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2014.10.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Madhavan V, Gangadharan PK, Ajayan A, Chandran S, Raveendran P (2019) Microwave-assisted solid-state synthesis of Au nanoparticles, size-selective speciation, and their self-assembly into 2D-superlattice. Nano-struct Nano-Obj 17:218–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoso.2019.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Pauzi N, Zain NM, Yusof NAA (2019) Microwave-assisted synthesis for environmentally ZnO nanoparticle synthesis. In: Proceedings of the 10th National Technical Seminar on Underwater System Technology 2018. Springer, pp 541–546Google Scholar
- 39.Forootanfar H, Adeli-Sardou M, Nikkhoo M, Mehrabani M, Amir-Heidari B, Shahverdi AR, Shakibaie M (2014) Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles in comparison to selenium dioxide. J Trace Elem Med Biol 28(1):75–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2013.07.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 40.Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction. Jpn. J. Nutr 44(6)Google Scholar
- 41.Kalaiselvi A, Roopan SM, Madhumitha G, Ramalingam C, Elango G (2015) Synthesis and characterization of palladium nanoparticles using Catharanthus roseus leaf extract and its application in the photo-catalytic degradation. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol. Spectrosc 135:116–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.07.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 43.Roopan SM, Bharathi A, Kumar R, Khanna VG, Prabhakarn A (2012) Acaricidal, insecticidal, and larvicidal efficacy of aqueous extract of Annona squamosa L peel as biomaterial for the reduction of palladium salts into nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 92:209–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2011.11.044 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 48.Tajima K, Watabe R, Kanaori K (2005) Antioxidant activity of PAPLAL a colloidal mixture of Pt and Pd metal to superoxide anion radical as studied by quantitative spin trapping ESR measurements. Clin Pharmacol Ther 15:635–642Google Scholar
- 51.Schmid M, Zimmermann S, Krug HF, Sures B (2007) Influence of platinum, palladium and rhodium as compared with cadmium, nickel and chromium on cell viability and oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells. Environ Int 33(3):385–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2006.12.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 52.Petrarca C, Clemente E, Di Giampaolo L, Mariani-Costantini R, Leopold K, Schindl R, Lotti LV, Mangifesta R, Sabbioni E, Niu Q (2014) Palladium nanoparticles induce disturbances in cell cycle entry and progression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells: paramount role of ions. J Immunol Res 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/295092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar