Protective Effects of Boron on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Bladder Damage and Oxidative Stress in Rats

  • Adnan AyhanciEmail author
  • Dondu Tugce Tanriverdi
  • Varol Sahinturk
  • Mustafa Cengiz
  • Sila Appak-Baskoy
  • Ilknur Kulcanay Sahin


This study aims to investigate protective effects of boron against cyclophosphamide-induced bladder toxicity that produces oxidative stress and leads to apoptosis of the cells. In total, 24 rats were divided into 4 equal groups. The control group received saline. The 2nd experimental group received 200 mg kg of cyclophosphamide i.p. on the 4th day while the 3rd group was given only boron (200 mg kg, i.p.) for 6 days. In the 4th group, boron was given for 6 days and cyclophosphamide (200 mg kg, i.p.) was administrated on the 4th day. Twenty-four hours after the last boron or cyclophosphamide administration, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia. Bladder tissues of rats were taken for histological and immunohistochemical (apoptotic markers such as caspase-3, bcl-2, and bax) and blood was taken for the biochemical (serum total thiol, serum natural thiol, serum thiol-disulfide) analysis. Transient epithelial thinning, edema, marked inflammatory reaction, and bleeding were observed in bladders of the group that received cyclophosphamide. Also, the activity of bax and caspase-3-positive cells increased while the number of bcl-2-positive cells decreased. In the same group, serum natural thiol and total thiol levels decreased while serum disulfide levels increased, which indicates oxidative stress. On the other hand, in the boron+cyclophosphamide group pretreatment with boron protected, the bladder tissue and the number of bcl-2-positive cells increased, and bax and caspase-3-positive cells decreased, showing antiapoptotic effects of boron against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity. In parallel with the findings of this group, native thiol and total thiol levels increased and serum disulfide levels decreased pointing out to a decreased oxidative stress. Our results indicate that boron pretreatment significantly protects rat bladder against cyclophosphamide-induced bladder damage due to its antiapoptotic and antioxidant properties.


Cyclophosphamide Bladder Boron Apoptosis Oxidative stress Thiol 



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adnan Ayhanci
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dondu Tugce Tanriverdi
    • 1
  • Varol Sahinturk
    • 2
  • Mustafa Cengiz
    • 3
  • Sila Appak-Baskoy
    • 4
  • Ilknur Kulcanay Sahin
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of BiologyEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskişehirTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and EmbryologyEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskişehirTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Elementary Education, Faculty of EducationSiirt UniversitySiirtTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of ScienceRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Vocational School of Health ServicesKırıkkale UniversityKırıkkaleTurkey

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