Role of Magnesium in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Jianan Feng
  • Heyuan Wang
  • Zhe Jing
  • Yue Wang
  • Yanli Cheng
  • Wanning Wang
  • Weixia SunEmail author


Magnesium (in its ionized and biologically active form, Mg2+) is an essential trace element that participates in numerous physiologic processes. Abnormal Mg2+ homeostasis can lead to many metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. Mg2+ participates in energy generation and is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Additionally, Mg2+ acts as a calcium antagonist and protects vascular endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Imbalances in Mg2+ status, more frequently hypomagnesemia, inhibit glucose transporter type 4 translocation, increase insulin resistance, affect lipid metabolism, induce oxidative stress, and impair the antioxidant system of endothelial cells, In these ways, hypomagnesemia contributes to the initiation and progression of DM and its macrovascular and microvascular complications. In this review, we summarize recent advances in knowledge of the mechanisms whereby Mg2+ regulates insulin secretion and sensitivity. In addition, we discuss the future prospects for research regarding the mechanisms whereby Mg2+ status impacts DM and its complications.


Mg2+ Diabetes Insulin resistance Oxidative stress Lipid peroxidation Gene mutation 


Funding Information

The study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 81400725(to W. Sun), Jilin University Bethune Foundation Grant 2015201(to W. Sun), Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province 20160101030JC (to W. Sun), and the 13th Five-Year Plan for Scientific Research of Jilin Provincial Education Department JJKH20180210KJ (to W. Sun).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NephrologyThe First Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyThe First Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina
  3. 3.Department of Laboratory MedicineThe First Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina

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