Effects of Dietary Zinc on Performance, Zinc Transporters Expression, and Immune Response of Aged Laying Hens
- 44 Downloads
This study was to investigate the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) supplementation on performance, zinc transporter gene expression, and immune function in aged laying hens. In experiment 1, twenty 31-week-old hens (young) and twenty 60-week-old hens (old) with the same genetic background were fed with the same diet for 4 weeks. In experiment 2, a basal diet supplemented with zinc sulfate (ZnS) and zinc glycine chelate (ZnG) at 30, 60, 90, and 120 mg Zn/kg to constitute nine experimental diets. Eight hundred and ten 60-week-old layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 6 replicates of 15 birds each, and birds were fed for 10 weeks. In experiment 1, results showed that zinc and metallothionein (MT) concentration in the shell gland of old hens was significantly lower than young layers (P < 0.05). Zinc transporters ZnT1, 4, 5, 6, and 7 messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance in old layers were significantly lower versus the young (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, results indicated that dietary zinc supplementation did not significantly affect the laying rate, average feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion efficiency, broken egg rate, or mortality (P > 0.05). Supplemental ZnG significantly improved eggshell breaking strength than ZnS, with a higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and more abundant ZnT4 expression in shell gland versus ZnS (P < 0.05). ZnG supplementation at 90 mg Zn/kg affected the duodenal mucus by significantly increasing ZnT1, 6, 7, ZIP13, and MT-4 mRNA level (P < 0.05). Zinc level significantly increased bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibody concentration on 14 day after BSA injection (P < 0.05). Supplementation of ZnG improved eggshell quality of aged layers by upgrading zinc transporter expression in the shell gland and intestine also enhanced humoral immunity.
KeywordsZinc Laying hen Shell gland Transporter Immune
bovine serum albumin
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry
metal-response element-binding transcription factor-1
quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction
Zrt- and Irt-like proteins
zinc glycine chelate
The authors would like to thank the staff of the Department of Animal Science and Technology of the China Agricultural University for their valuable assistance in sample collecting. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Kenny Ray Hazen for his linguistic help.
Qiqi Han performed the animal experiment, established sample and statistical analysis and wrote the manuscript; Yuming Guo designed the research, interpreted the data; Bingkun Zhang assisted with the design of the research and data analysis; Wei Nie adjusted the manuscript writing and experiment designing; all authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The State Key Development Program (2016YFD0501202) supported this study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate
All procedures of animal care and use for this experiment were approved by China Agricultural University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (No. CAU20160910-2).
Consent for Publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 8.Kambe T (2013) Methods to evaluate zinc transport into and out of the secretory and endosomal-lysosomal compartments in DT40 cells. Methods Enzymol 534:77–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397926-1.00005-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Fukunaka A, Suzuki T, Kurokawa Y, Yamazaki T, Fujiwara N, Ishihara K, Migaki H, Okumura K, Masuda S, Yamaguchi-Iwai Y, Nagao M, Kambe T (2009) Demonstration and characterization of the heterodimerization of ZnT5 and ZnT6 in the early secretory pathway. J Biol Chem 284(45):30798–30806. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.026435 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.Gao J, Lv Z, Li C, Yue Y, Zhao X, Wang F, Guo Y (2014) Maternal zinc supplementation enhanced skeletal muscle development through increasing protein synthesis and inhibiting protein degradation of their offspring. Biol Trace Elem Res 162(1-3):309–316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0122-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Pae M, Meydani SN, Wu D (2011) The role of nutrition in enhancing immunity in aging. Aging Dis 3(1):91–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.03.007 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 29.Jou MY, Hall AG, Philipps AF, Kelleher SL, Lonnerdal B (2009) Tissue-Specific alterations in zinc transporter expression in intestine and liver reflect a threshold for homeostatic compensation during dietary zinc deficiency in weanling rats. J Nutr 139(5):835–841. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.100974 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Martin L, Pieper R, Schunter N, Vahjen W, Zentek J (2013) Performance, organ zinc concentration, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA expression in piglets fed with different levels of dietary zinc. Arch Anim Nutr 67(3):248–261. https://doi.org/10.1080/1745039X.2013.801138 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Liuzzi JP, Cousins RJ (2004) Mammalian zinc transporters. Annu Rev Nutr 24:151–172. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.24.012003.132402 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 36.Palmiter RD, Findley SD (1995) Cloning and functional characterization of a mammalian zinc transporter that confers resistance to zinc. EMBO J 14(4):639. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1460-2075.1995.tb07042.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 40.Lichten LA, Cousins RJ (2009) Mammalian zinc transporters: Nutritional and physiologic regulation. Annu Rev Nutr 29(1):153–176. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-033009-083312 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.Jeong J, Walker JM, Wang F, Park JG, Palmer AE, Giunta C, Rohrbach M, Steinmann B, Eide DJ (2012) Promotion of vesicular zinc efflux by ZIP13 and its implications for spondylocheiro dysplastic Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(51):E3530–E3538. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1211775110 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 43.Mezes M, Erdélyi M, Balogh K (2012) Deposition of organic trace metal complexes as feed additives in farm animals. Eur Chem Bull 1:410–413. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.24.012003.132402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Yenice E, Mızrak C, Gültekin M, Atik Z, Tunca M (2015) Effects of organic and inorganic forms of manganese, zinc, copper, and chromium on bioavailability of these minerals and calcium in Late-Phase laying hens. Biol Trace Elem Res 167(2):300–307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-015-0313-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 45.Martin L, Lodemann U, Bondzio A, Gefeller EM, Vahjen W, Aschenbach JR, Zentek J, Pieper R (2013) A high amount of dietary zinc changes the expression of zinc transporters and metallothionein in jejunal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo but does not prevent zinc accumulation in jejunal tissue of piglets. J Nutr 143(8):1205–1210. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.113.177881 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 47.Antonissen G, Van Immerseel F, Pasmans F, Ducatelle R, Janssens GPJ, De Baere S, Mountzouris KC, Su S, Wong EA, De Meulenaer B, Verlinden M, Devreese M, Haesebrouck F, Novak B, Dohnal I, Martel A, Croubels S (2015) Mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and fumonisins alter the extrinsic component of intestinal barrier in broiler chickens. J Agric Food Chem 63(50):10846–10855. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04119 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 49.Coleman JE (1992) Structure and mechanism of alkaline phosphatase. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 21(1):441–483. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bb.21.060192.002301 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 50.Michalczyk A, Varigos G, Catto-Smith A, Blomeley RC, Ackland ML (2003) Analysis of zinc transporter, hZnT4 ( Slc30A4 ), gene expression in a mammary gland disorder leading to reduced zinc secretion into milk. Hum Genet 113(3):202–210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-003-0952-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 52.Stahl JL, Cook ME, Sunde ML, Gregor JL (1989) Enhanced humoral immunity in progeny chicks from hens fed practical diets supplemented with zinc. Poult Sci 63(Suppl 1):187Google Scholar