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Effect of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn and Bioaccessibilities in the Hazelnuts Growing in Sakarya, Turkey using In-Vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction Method

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Abstract

Total concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn in different hazelnut samples obtained by different regions of Sakarya city, Turkey were identified for the determination of heavy metal in the first section of this study. In the second section of our study, metal concentrations that can pass to the body by stomach and intestine in case of consuming hazelnuts as in vitro with gastrointestinal methods. It is performed by using enzymes and hydrochloric acid with model intestine and stomach system. In vitro gastrointestinal extraction method aims to identify how much the chemicals obtained by the sample matrices as vegetables, fruits, and soil, which are obtained within daily diet and examines the bioefficacy and bioaccessibility ingesting, used for evaluation of the chemical risk for humans were released. Total metal concentrations in the hazelnuts and metal concentrations passing to the stomach and intestines via in vitro gastrointestinal extraction method were identified with ICP-OES. As the result, heavy metal amounts of hazelnut samples are below the limits identified by Turkish Food Codex (TFC) and World Health Organization (WHO) and in harmony with the literature results so there is no objection in terms of health.

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Funding

This study is financially supported by the Scientific Research Project of Sakarya University (Project No: 2014-50-01-009 and 2017-50-01-018).

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Correspondence to Huseyin Altundag.

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Altundag, H., Mutlu, E., Altintig, E. et al. Effect of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn and Bioaccessibilities in the Hazelnuts Growing in Sakarya, Turkey using In-Vitro Gastrointestinal Extraction Method. Biol Trace Elem Res 194, 596–602 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01813-4

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Keywords

  • In vitro gastrointestinal
  • Extraction method
  • Heavy metal
  • Nuts
  • ICP-OES
  • Microwave digestion