Relationship Between Dietary Intake and Urinary Excretion of Silicon in Free-Living Korean Adult Men and Women

  • Yi-Yeong Kim
  • Mi-Hyun Kim
  • Mi-Kyeong ChoiEmail author


Previous studies have reported that silicon (Si) has a positive effect on bone health, immune response, and cognitive health. However, basic and important studies on evaluating dietary intake and urinary excretion of Si are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary Si intake and urinary excretion according to gender and age in healthy and free-living Korean adults and to investigate the relationship between them with gender. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment using a food record, and a 24-h urine collection were conducted in 80 healthy Korean adults (40 males and 40 females; groups of 8 subjects representing each decade of life [20s to 60s]) with self-selected diet. The dietary assessment and 24-h urine collection were performed twice at intervals of 3 days. Daily intake of Si was estimated using a Si database of food composition. Urinary excretion of Si was analyzed using ICP-OES. The mean dietary Si intake was 22.8 mg/day for men and 19.3 mg/day for women without significant difference according to their gender and age. Si intake was the highest from vegetables both in men and women, followed by grains, beverages, and fruits in men and by grains, fruits, and milks in women. Urinary Si excretion was significantly higher in men (9.8 mg/day) than women (9.3 mg/day), and significantly increased with age only in women. Regarding the relationship between dietary Si intake and urinary Si excretion, a significantly positive correlation was found in men, but not in women. Longitudinal and balance studies to elucidate gender differences in Si nutrition are needed.


Silicon Diet Urine Adult Men Women 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Kyungpook National University (IRB 2014-0053) and was conducted according to the Helsinki declaration; all subjects were explained in detail the purpose and contents of the study, and each signed an informed consent form.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Food ScienceKongju National UniversityYesanSouth Korea

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