Effects of Sodium Selenite, L-Selenomethionine, and Selenium Nanoparticles During Late Pregnancy on Selenium, Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Khalkhali Goats and Their Kids

  • Rasool Kachuee
  • Hossein Abdi-BenemarEmail author
  • Yaghoub Mansoori
  • Pedro Sánchez-Aparicio
  • Jamal Seifdavati
  • Mona M. M. Y. Elghandour
  • Regulo Jiménez Guillén
  • Abdelfattah Z. M. SalemEmail author


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic, inorganic, and selenium nanoparticle supplements at the final stage of pregnancy on selenium, zinc, copper, and iron concentrations of goats and placental, colostrum, and milk transfer of these trace minerals from goats to their kids. Forty pregnant Khalkhali goats (30 ± 5 kg) were randomly allocated to four treatments including (1) no supplement (control), 0.6 mg Se head−1 day−1 of selenomethionine (SM), 0.6 mg Se head−1 day−1 of selenium nanoparticles (SN), and 0.6 mg Se head−1 day−1 of sodium selenite (SS), from 4 weeks before the expected day of delivery to delivery day. Blood samples were taken from the goats 4 weeks before the expected day of delivery and on the kidding day. Colostrum samples were collected from the goats immediately after kidding. Instantly after delivery, newborn kids were taken apart from their dams and their blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, before they drank their first colostrums and at 7, 14, 21, and 28 after birthday. The results demonstrated that the whole blood and serum Se concentration was greater in Se-supplemented goats compared with the control (P < 0.05). The total Se content of the whole blood and serum was higher in SN than in SM (P < 0.05) and SS goats (P < 0.05). At birth, the whole blood and serum concentration of Se was decreased (P < 0.05) in kids of SN-treated goats contrasted with the control ones (P < 0.05). The copper content of goats and their kids in treated goats was greater compared with control goats except for SN treated, which was decreased (P < 0.05). It was totally vice versa with Zn content trend in the whole blood, serum, and colostrum (P < 0.05), which was also concomitant with an increase in Fe content of kids of supplemented goats at birth and first week of life (P < 0.05). These results seem to indicate a higher efficacy of placental and colostral transfer of Se into kids of SM-treated goats when contrasted with either receiving comparable doses of SN or SS. It could be concluded that Se supplementation can affect and correlate with Cu, Zn, and Fe levels, and this effect depends a lot on the chemical or physical variety of Se supplementation.


Goats Selenium nanoparticles Selenomethionine Copper Zinc Iron 



Special thanks to Mr. Ebrahim Keighobadi for his assistance in editing the article and thanks to M.H. Romena for statistical advisory. This work was supported by University of Mohaghegh Ardabili.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Animals were cared for according to the guidelines of the Iranian Council of Animal Care.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology, Anesthesia and Analgesia, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal ScienceAutonomous University of the State of MexicoTolucaMexico
  4. 4.Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal ScienceAutonomous University of the State of MexicoTolucaMexico
  5. 5.Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de GuerreroIgualaMexico

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