Association Between Trace Element Status and Depression in HTLV-1-Infected Patients: a Retrospective Cohort Study

  • Susan Darroudi
  • Samaneh Abolbashari
  • Najmeh Ahangari
  • Maryam Tayefi
  • Zahra Khashyarmanesh
  • Parvin Zamani
  • Hamideh Moalemzadeh Haghighi
  • Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour
  • Shima Tavalaei
  • Habibollah Esmaily
  • Gordon A. Ferns
  • Zahra MeshkatEmail author
  • Batool Tayefi
  • Majid Ghayour-MobarhanEmail author


Depression and Anxiety are two important public health problems that are known to be associated with viral infections. The association between the intake of nutrients such as zinc and copper with symptoms of depression has been studied previously. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between depression with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and serum content of zinc and copper in a large Iranian population cohort. The study population consisted of 279 HTLV-1-positive patients who were identified after recruitment as part of a large cohort study: the Mashhad Stroke and Heart Association Disorder (MASHAD) study. They were divided into two groups of diagnosed with or without depression based on their symptoms. Serum zinc and copper levels of all subjects were measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The population sample comprised of 279 individuals infected with HTLV-1 of whom 192 (68.8%) were women. The mean serum zinc in the group with and without depression was 78.69 ± 13.79 μg/dl and 86.87 ± 19.44 μg/dl, respectively (p < 0.001). Also, the serum copper level was higher in the depressive group (116.75 ± 39.56) than in the non-depressive group (104.76 ± 30.77) (p 0.004). The association between serum zinc and copper with depression in HTLV-1-infected patients which was shown in this study could be considered in the treatment strategies in these patients.


HTLV-1 Depression Zinc Copper MASHAD study 



We thank Prof. Gholam Hossein Hagh Nia for his critical review of this manuscript.


This study was supported by a grant from Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and was part of two Molecular Medicine PhD thesis (codes: 940247 and 941175).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Darroudi
    • 1
  • Samaneh Abolbashari
    • 1
  • Najmeh Ahangari
    • 1
  • Maryam Tayefi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zahra Khashyarmanesh
    • 4
  • Parvin Zamani
    • 5
  • Hamideh Moalemzadeh Haghighi
    • 4
  • Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour
    • 6
    • 7
  • Shima Tavalaei
    • 8
  • Habibollah Esmaily
    • 9
  • Gordon A. Ferns
    • 10
  • Zahra Meshkat
    • 11
    Email author
  • Batool Tayefi
    • 12
  • Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
    • 8
    • 13
    Email author
  1. 1.Student Research Committee, Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Research CenterMashhad University of Medical Science MashhadIran
  3. 3.University International Accreditation, International Office, Clinical Research UnitMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  4. 4.Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of PharmacyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  5. 5.Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  6. 6.Clinical Pharmacy Department, School of PharmacyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  7. 7.Pharmaceutical Research CenterMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  8. 8.Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  9. 9.Department of Biostatistics, School of HealthMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  10. 10.Division of Medical EducationBrighton and Sussex Medical SchoolBrightonUK
  11. 11.Antimicrobial Resistance Research CenterMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  12. 12.Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research CenterIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  13. 13.Biochemistry of Nutrition Research Center, School of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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