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The Impact of Trace Minerals on Bone Metabolism

  • Erin Gaffney-StombergEmail author
Article

Abstract

Bone is a metabolically active tissue that responds to alterations in dietary intake and nutritional status. It is ~ 35% protein, mostly collagen which provides an organic scaffolding for bone mineral. The mineral is the remaining ~ 65% of bone tissue and composed mostly of calcium and phosphate in a form that is structurally similar to mineral within the apatite group. The skeletal tissue is constantly undergoing turnover through resorption by osteoclasts coupled with formation by osteoblasts. In this regard, the overall bone balance is determined by the relative contribution of each of these processes. In addition to macro minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium which have well-known roles in bone health, trace elements such as boron, iron, zinc, copper, and selenium also impact bone metabolism. Effects of trace elements on skeletal metabolism and tissue properties may be indirect through regulation of macro mineral metabolism, or direct by affecting osteoblast or osteoclast proliferation or activity, or finally through incorporation into the bone mineral matrix. This review focuses on the skeletal impact of the following trace elements: boron, iron, zinc, copper, and selenium, and overviews the state of the evidence for each of these minerals.

Keywords

Minerals Bone Trace elements Nutritional status 

Abbreviations

BMD

Bone mineral density

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

25OHD

25-Hydroxyvitamin D

CTX

C-terminal telopeptides

TRAP5b

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b

NTx

N-terminal telopeptide

BAP

Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase

P1NP

Procollagen 1 intact N-terminal

OC

Osteocalcin

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Army or the Department of Defense. Any citations of commercial organizations and trade names in this report do not constitute an official Department of the Army endorsement of approval of the products or services of these organizations.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Military Performance Division of the US Army Research Institute of Environmental MedicineNatickUSA

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