Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 189, Issue 2, pp 529–537 | Cite as

Organic Chromium Form Alleviates the Detrimental Effects of Heat Stress on Nutrient Digestibility and Nutrient Transporters in Laying Hens

  • Cemal Orhan
  • Mehmet Tuzcu
  • Patrick Brice Defo Deeh
  • Nurhan Sahin
  • James R. Komorowski
  • Kazim SahinEmail author


In the present study, we investigated the effects of chromium-picolinate (CrPic) and chromium-histidinate (CrHis) on nutrient digestibility and nutrient transporters in laying hens exposed to heat stress (HS). Hens (n = 1800; 16 weeks old) were kept in cages in temperature-controlled rooms at either 22 ± 2 °C for 24 h/day (thermoneutral (TN)) or 34 ± 2 °C for 8 h/day, from 08:00 to 17:00, followed by 22 °C for 16 h (HS) for 12 weeks. Hens reared under both environmental conditions were fed one of three diets: a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with either 1.600 mg of CrPic (12.43% Cr) or 0.788 mg of CrHis (25.22% Cr) per kg of diet, delivering 200 μg elemental Cr per kg of diet. HS impaired the nutrient digestibility and nutrient transports in laying hens (P < 0.001). However, both Cr sources increased digestibility of dry matter (DM; P < 0.001), organic matter (OM; P < 0.05), crude protein (CP; P < 0.001), and crude fat (CF; P < 0.001). Both Cr sources partially alleviated detrimental effects of HS on fatty acid-binding and transport protein1 (FABP1, FATP1), glucose (SGLT1, GLUT1, GLUT10), protein (PepT1, PepT2), and amino acid transporters (ASCT1, bo,+AT1, CAT1, EAAT1, LAT1) of the ileum (P < 0.0001). The efficacy of Cr as CrHis was more notable than Cr as CrPic, which could be attributed to higher bioavailability. Finally, the detrimental effects of HS on nutrient digestibility and nutrient transporters were alleviated by CrPic and CrHis. These findings may justify the use of CrPic and CrHis in poultry.


Chromium-histidinate Chromium-picolinate Digestibility Nutrient transporters Heat stress 



Thanks are extended to Farmavet International (İstanbul, Turkey) for donating vitamin-mineral premixes and reconstituting premixes with Cr chelates.

Authors’ Contributions

KS and JRK participated in the study design and drafting the manuscript. VK, CO, MT, HT, MI, HT, and NS participated in the data collection and assays, data analysis, and drafting the manuscript. VK and DDPB participated in the data analysis and statistical analysis for the variables and drafting the manuscript. KS and JRK participated in drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The study was funded by Small and Medium Business Development and Support Administration of Turkey (KOSGEB) and also in part by Turkish Academy of Sciences (Ankara, Turkey). The authors thank Nutrition 21 (NY, USA) for providing chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All animal experimental procedures followed protocols approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Veterinary Control Institute (Elazig, Turkey).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. James R. Komorowski is an employee of Nutrition 21, Inc., NY, USA.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceFirat UniversityElazigTurkey
  2. 2.Division of Biology, Faculty of ScienceFirat UniversityElazigTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, Animal Physiology and Phytopharmacology LaboratoryUniversity of DschangDschangCameroon
  4. 4.Research & Development, Nutrition 21 Inc., PurchaseNew YorkUSA

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